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References

Aadland, L. P. (1993). "Stream Habitat Types: Their Fish Assemblages and Relationship to Flow " North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13: 790-806.
Abbe, T. B. and D. R. Montgomery (1996). "Large woody debris jams, channel hydraulics and habitat formation in large rivers." Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 12: 1-21.
Abbe, T. B. and D. R. Montgomery (2003). "Patterns and processes of wood debris accumulation in the Queets river basin, Washington." Geomorphology 51: 81-107.
Field surveys in the 724-km2 Queets river basin on the west slope of the Olympic Mountains in NW Washington reveal
basin-wide patterns of distinctive wood debris (WD) accumulations that arise from different mechanisms of WD recruitment,
hydraulic geometry, and physical characteristics of WD. Individual pieces of WD in an accumulation or jam can be
separated into key, racked, and loose members. Ten types of WD accumulations are identified based on the mode of
recruitment and the orientation of key, racked, and loose debris relative to the channel axis. Although some types of WD
accumulation have few geomorphic effects, others form stable in-stream structures that influence alluvial morphology at
both subreach- and reach-length scales ranging from less than 1 to greater than 10 channel widths. In the Queets river,
stable accumulations of WD directly influence channel anabranching, planform geometry, flood plain topography, and
establishment of long-term riparian refugia for old-growth forest development. The classification of wood debris
accumulations in the Queets river basin is based on physical observations that offer a template potentially applicable to
other forested mountain regions.
 
Abbott, L. L. (1987). The effect of fire on subsequent growth of surviving trees in an old growth redwood forest in Redwood National Park, California. Arcata, California, Humboldt State University.
Abbott, M. B., J.C. Bathurst, J.A. Cunge, P.E. O'Connell, and J. Rasmussen (1986). "An introduction to the european hydrological system - systeme hydologique europeen, "SHE", 2: structure of a physically based, distributed modelling system." Journal of Hydrology 87: 61-77.
Abrahams, A. D., G Li, C Krishnan, and JF Atkinson. "A sediment transport equation for interrill overland flow on rough surfaces."
A model for predicting the sediment transport capacity of turbulent interrill flow on rough surfaces is developed from 1295 flume experiments with flow depths ranging from 3.4 to 43.4 mm, flow velocities from 0.09 to 0.65 m s super(-1), Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 26949, Froude numbers from 0.23 to 2.93, bed slopes from 2.7 degree to 10 degree , sediment diameters from 0.098 to 1.16 mm, volumetric sediment concentrations from 0.002 to 0.304, roughness concentrations from 0 to 0.57, roughness diameters from 1.0 to 91.3 mm, rainfall intensities from 0 to 159 mm h super(-1), flow densities from 1002 to 1501 kg m super(-3), and flow kinematic viscosities from 0.913 to 2.556 x 10 super(-6) m super(2) s super(-1). Stones, cylinders and miniature ornamental trees are used as roughness elements. Given the diverse shapes, sizes and concentrations of these elements, the transport model is likely to apply to a wide range of ground surface morphologies. Using dimensional analysis, a total-load transport equation is developed for open-channel flows, and this equation is shown to apply to interrill flows both with and without rainfall. The equation indicates that the dimensionless sediment transport rate phi is a function of, and therefore can be predicted by, the dimensionless shear stress theta , its critical value theta sub(c), the resistance coefficient u/u*, the inertial settling velocity of the sediment w sub(i), the roughness concentration C sub(r), and the roughness diameter D sub(r). Testing reveals that the model gives good unbiased predictions of phi in flows with sediment concentrations less than 0.20. Flows with higher concentrations appear to be hyperconcentrated and to have sediment transport rates higher than those predicted by the model.
 
Abrahams, A. D. (1972). "Drainage densities and sediment yields in eastern Australia." Australian Geographical Studies 10: 19-41.
Abrahams, A. D., and  J.F. Atkinson (1993). "Relation between grain velocity and sediment concentration in overland flow." Water Resources Research 29(9): 3021-3028.
Abt, S. R., et al. (1992). "Ability of Streambed Vegetation to Entrap Fine Sediments." Interdiscipinary Approaches in Hydrology and Hydrogeology: 249-259.
Abt, S. R., et al. (1993). Sediment Entrapment in Vegetated Streambeds. Preserving Our Environment - The Race Is On, Indianapolis, Indiana, International Erosion Control Association.
Achord, S., et al. (2007). "Migration timing, growth, and estimated parr-to-smolt survival rates of wild Snake River spring-summer chinook salmon from the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, to the Lower Snake River." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136: 142-154.
Survival, growth, and juvenile migration timing are key life history traits for at-risk salmon
populations. To estimate these traits in threatened wild Snake River spring–summer Chinook salmon
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we tagged fish as parr in 3–17 natal streams per year from 1991 to 2003. We
injected passive integrated transponder tags into parr collected from streams within the Salmon River basin in
Idaho. Each spring, after the previous summer’s tagging, fish were detected as smolts in the juvenile fish
bypass systems of lower Snake River dams. Estimated parr-to-smolt survival to Lower Granite Dam
(excluding migration year 1992) ranged from 3% to 48% for individual populations and from 8% to 25%
(yearly average ¼ 16%) for all streams combined. From 1998 to 2004, estimated parr-to-smolt survival
declined from 25% to 8%, in part because of parr density-dependent effects. Overall annual average growth
rates from tagging to detection at Little Goose Dam ranged from 39.7 to 43.3 mm during 2001–2004, and
significant differences in growth were observed among sites and years. Growth of individuals was positively
related to elapsed time between tagging and recapture and negatively related to fork length at tagging. Annual
migration timing distributions for fish populations from the different streams varied highly within and
between years. Timing of the 10th to 90th percentile passing Lower Granite Dam ranged from 20 to 45 d for
the combined wild populations (average ¼ 38 d). Median passage date was negatively related to autumn
temperature, spring temperature, and March river flow, and was positively related to elevation of the tagging
site. Baseline data generated by this project provide a foundation for understanding the biocomplexity of these
populations, which is critical to effective recovery efforts for these threatened wild fish stocks.
 
Acker, S. A., et al. (2003). "Composition, complexity and tree mortality in riparian forests in the central Western Cascades of Oregon." Forest Ecology and Management 173: 293-308.
Ackroyd, P. (1984). "En Masse Debris Transport in a Mountain Stream." Earth Surface Process and Landforms 9: 307-320.
Acornley, R. M. and D. A. Sear (1999). "Sediment transport and siltation of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) spawning gravels in chalk streams." Hydrological Processes 13: 447--458.
Adair, M. J., et al. (1989). "Geology and Seismicity of the Skagit Nuclear Power Plant Site." Engineering Geology in Washington I: 607-624.
Adams, J. (1980). "Contemporary uplift and erosion of the Southern Alps, New Zealand." Geological Society of America Bulletin 91: 1-114.
Adams, J. (1984). "Active Deformation of the Pacific Northwest Continental Margin." Tectonics 3(4): 449-472.
Adams, J. (1985). Large-scale tectonic geomorphology of the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Tectonic Geomorphology. M. Morisawa and J. T. Hack, Allen and Unwin.
Adams, J. N. (1979). Variations in Gravel Bed Compostion of Small Streams in the Oregon Coast Range, Oregon State University: 160.
Adams, J. N. and R. L. Beschta (1980). "Gravel Bed Composition in Oregon Coastal Streams " Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37: 1514-1521.
Adams, M. B., L.H. Loughry, and L.L. Plaugher. (2004). Experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service., General Technical Report GTR-NE-321. USDA Forest Service, North-East Region, Parsons, WV: 178 p.
Adams, T. O., D.D. Hook, and M.A. Floyd (1995). "Effectiveness monitoring of silvicultural best management practices in South Carolina." SJAF 19(4): 170-176.
Agee, J. K. (1990). Fire History Along an Elevational Gradient in the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon (DRAFT). Seattle, Washington, University of Washington: 24.
Agee, J. K. (1993). Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Washington, D.C., Island Press.
Agee, J. K. (1994). An analysis of catastrophic forest disturbance on the Olympic Peninsula (DRAFT), prepared for Rayonier, Inc.: 2-29.
Agee, J. K. (?). Fire history of Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest.
Agee, J. K., et al. (1990). "Forest fire history of Desolation Peak, Washington." Canadian Journal of Forest Resources 20: 350-356.
Agee, J. K. and R. Flewelling (1983). A fire cycle model based on climate for the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Seventh Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology, Boston, MA, American Meteorological Society.
Agee, J. K. and R. Flewelling (1983). A fire cycle model based on climate for the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Proceedings of Seventh Conference on Fire and Forest Meteorology. Boston, American Meteorology Society. 7: 32-37.
Agee, J. K. and M. H. Huff (1987). "Fuel succession in a western hemlock/Douglas-fir forest." Canadian Journal of Forest Resources 17: 697-704.
Agee, J. K. and D. R. Johnson (1988). Ecosystem management for parks and wilderness: workshop synthesis. Seattle, Washington, Institute of Forest Resources: 2-39.
Agency, U. S. E. P. (1991). Guidance for water quality-based decisions: The TMDL Process, United States Environmental Protection Agency.
Agnese, C., et al. (1988). "Estimation of the time scale of the geomorphologic instantaneous unit hydrograph from effective streamflow velocity." Water Resources Research 24(7): 969-978.
Agrawal, A., et al. (2005). Predicting the potential for historical coho, chinook and steelhead habitat in northern California, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: 25.
Ahl, R. S., S. Woods,  and M. DiLuzio (2005). "Integrating landscape and hydrologic simulation models to assess the influence of fire-suppression on water yield from forested Rocky Mountain watersheds." Eos Trans. AGU,  86(52) Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract #H41D-0436. San Francisco, California.
Ahl, R. S., S.W. Woods, and H.R. Zuuring (2008). "Hydrologic calibration and validation of SWAT in a snow-dominated Rocky Mountain watershed, Montana, U.S.A." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44(6): 1411-1430.
Ahnert, F. (1994). "Equilibrium, scale and inheritance in geomorphology." Geomorphology 11: 125-140.
Ai, N. S. and T. D. Miao (1987). "A model of progressive slope failure under the effect of the neotectonic stress field." Catena Supplement 10: 21-29.
Aitt, R. B. and R. M. Thorson (?). The Cordilleran Ice Sheet in Washingon, Idaho, and Montana. ?
Ajward MH, a. I. M. (2000). "A spatially varied unit hydrograph model." Journal of Environmental Hydrology 8(7).
Alberti, M., et al. (2007). "The impact of urban patterns on aquatic ecosystems: An empirical analysis in Puget lowland sub-basins." Landscape and Urban Planning 80: 345-361.
Landscape change associated with urbanization poses major challenges to aquatic ecosystems. Extensive studies have shown that the composition
of land cover within a watershed can account for much of the variability in water quality and stream ecological conditions. While several studies
have addressed the relationship between watershed urbanization and biotic integrity in streams, few have directly addressed the question of how
urban patterns influence ecological conditions. These studies typically correlate changes in ecological conditions with simple aggregated measures
of urbanization (e.g., human population density or percent impervious surface).We develop an empirical study of the impact of urban development
patterns on stream ecological conditions in 42 sub-basins in the Puget Sound lowland region on a gradient of urbanization. We hypothesize that
ecological conditions in urbanizing landscapes are influenced through biophysical changes by four urban pattern variables: land use intensity, land
cover composition, landscape configuration, and connectivity of the impervious area. Using community measures of benthic macroinvertebrates
as indicators of in-stream biotic integrity we examined the relationships between urban development patterns and ecological conditions in these
basins. Significant statistical relationships were found between landscape patterns—both amount and configuration of impervious area and forest
land—and biotic integrity of streams suggesting that patterns of urban development matter to aquatic ecosystems.
 
 
Alexander, C. a. C. V. (2003). "Modern sedimentary processes in the Santa Monica, California continental margin: sediment accumulation, mixing and budget." Marine Environmental Research 56(1-2): 177-204.
Alexander, G. R. and E. A. Hansen (1986). "Sand Bed Load in a Brook Trout Stream." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 6: 9-23.
Alila, Y., and M. Schnorbus (2005). "Peak flow responses to forest harvesting and roads  in the Maritime Regions of the Pacific Northwest: a preferential hillslope runoff perspective." Eos Trans. AGU,  86(52) Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract #H24A-04.
Allan, J. D. (1995). Stream ecology: structure and function of running waters. London, Chapman & Hall.
Allan, J. D. (2004). "landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems." Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35: 257-284.
Local habitat and biological diversity of streams and rivers are strongly
influenced by landform and land use within the surrounding valley at multiple scales.
However, empirical associations between land use and stream response only varyingly
succeed in implicating pathways of influence. This is the case for a number of reasons,
including (a) covariation of anthropogenic and natural gradients in the landscape;
(b) the existence of multiple, scale-dependent mechanisms; (c) nonlinear responses;
and (d) the difficulties of separating present-day from historical influences. Further
research is needed that examines responses to land use under different management
strategies and that employs response variables that have greater diagnostic value than
many of the aggregated measures in current use.
 
 
Allan, J. D., et al. (1997). "The influence of catchment land use on stream integrity across multiple spatial scales." Freshwater Biology 37: 149-161.
1. Despite wide recognition of the need for catchment-scale management to ensure the
integrity of river ecosystems, the science and policy basis for joint management of land
and water remains poorly understood. An interdisciplinary case study of a river basin
in south-eastern Michigan is presented.
2. The River Raisin drains an area of 2776 km2, of which some 70% is agricultural land.
The upper basin consists of till and outwash, and both topography and land use/cover
are diverse. The lower basin consists of fine textured lake deposits, is of low relief, and
land use is primarily agricultural.
3. The River Raisin basin historically was a region of oak-savannah and wetlands. It
was deforested, drained and converted to farmland during the mid-nineteenth century.
Human population reached a plateau at about 1880, and then underwent a second
period of growth after 1950, mainly in small urban areas. More recently, the amount of
agricultural land has declined and forested land has increased, in accord with a general
decline in farming activity.
4. It could be suggested that the influence of land use on stream integrity is scaledependent.
Instream habitat structure and organic matter inputs are determined
primarily by local conditions such as vegetative cover at a site, whereas nutrient supply,
sediment delivery, hydrology and channel characteristics are influenced by regional
conditions, including landscape features and land use/cover at some distance upstream
and lateral to stream sites.
5. Sediment concentrations measured during low flows were higher in areas of greater
agriculture. In a comparison of two subcatchments, sediment yields were up to ten
times greater in the more agricultural location, in response to similar storm events. A
distributed parameter model linked to a geographical information system predicted that
an increase in forested land cover would result in dramatic declines in runoff and
sediment and nutrient yields.
6. Habitat quality and biotic integrity varied widely among individual stream sites in
accord with patterns in land use/cover. Extent of agricultural land at the subcatchment
scale was the best single predictor of local stream conditions. Local riparian vegetation
was uncorrelated with overall land use and was a weak secondary predictor of habitat
quality and biotic integrity.
7. Investigation of the regulatory agencies involved in land and water management in
the basin revealed a complex web of overlapping political jurisdictions. Most land-use
decision-making occurs at the local level of township, city or village. Unfortunately, local decision-making bodies typically lack the information and jurisdictional authority
to influence up- and downstream events.
 
 
Allen, J. D. (1995). Stream Ecology: Structure and Function of Running Waters. Norwell, MA, Academic Publishers.
Allen, T. F. H. and T. W. Hoekstra (1987). Problems of scaling in restoration ecology: a practical application. Restoration Ecology. W. R. Jordan. Cambridge, MA, Cambridge University Press: 289-299.
Allen, T. F. H. and T. B. Starr (1982). Hierarchy: Perspectives for Ecological Complexity. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Allmendinger, R. W., et al. (1983). "Paleogeography and Andean Structural Geometry, Northwest Argentina." Tectonics 2(1): 1-16.
Amaranthus, M. P., et al. (1985). "Logging and Forest Roads Related to Increased Debris Slides in Southwestern Oregon." Journal of Forestry 83(4): 229-233.
Ambers, R. K. R. (2000). "Using the Sediment Record in a Western Oregon Flood-control Reservoir to Assess the Influence of Storm History and Logging on Sediment Yield (DRAFT)." submitted to the Journal of Hydrology: 1-12.
Amoros, C., et al. (1987). "A method for applied ecological studies of fluvial hydrosystems." Regulated Rivers 1: 17-36.
Anbalagan, R. (1992). "Landslide hazard evaluation and zonation mapping in mountainous terrain." Engineering Geology 32: 269-277.
Anders, A. M., et al. (2008). "Influence of precipitation phase on the form of mountain ranges." Geology 36(6): 479-482.
Anderson, D. M., and L.H. MacDonald (1998). "Modelling road surface sediment production using a vector GIS." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23: 95-107.
Anderson, E. W. and N. J. Cox (1978). "A comparison of different instruments for measuring soil creep." Catena 5: 81-93.
Anderson, J. H. and T. P. Quinn (2007). "Movements of adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during colonizatino of newly accessible habitat." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 64: 1143-1154.
Anderson, J. K., et al. (2005). "Patterns in stream longitudinal profiles and implications for hyporheic exchange flow at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA." Hydrological Processes 19: 2931-2949.
There is a need to identify measurable characteristics of stream channel morphology that vary predictably throughout
stream networks and that influence patterns of hyporheic exchange flow in mountain streams. In this paper we
characterize stream longitudinal profiles according to channel unit spacing and the concavity of the water surface
profile. We demonstrate that: (1) the spacing between zones of upwelling and downwelling in the beds of mountain
streams is closely related to channel unit spacing; (2) the magnitude of the vertical hydraulic gradients (VHGs)
driving hyporheic exchange flow increase with increasing water surface concavity, measured at specific points along
the longitudinal profile; (3) channel unit spacing and water surface concavity are useful metrics for predicting how
patterns in hyporheic exchange vary amongst headwater and mid-order streams. We use regression models to describe
changes in channel unit spacing and concavity in longitudinal profiles for 12 randomly selected stream reaches spanning
62 km2 in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon. Channel unit spacing increased significantly, whereas
average water surface concavity (AWSC) decreased significantly with increasing basin area. Piezometer transects
installed longitudinally in a subset of stream reaches were used to measure VHG in the hyporheic zone, and to
determine the location of upwelling and downwelling zones. Predictions for median pool length and median distance
between steps in piezometer reaches bracketed the median distance separating zones of upwelling in the stream
bed. VHG in individual piezometers increased with increasing water surface concavity at individual points in the
longitudinal profile along piezometer transects. Absolute values of VHG, averaged throughout piezometer transects,
increased with increasing AWSC, indicating increased potential for hyporheic exchange flow. These findings suggest
that average hyporheic flow path lengths increase—and the potential for hyporheic exchange flow in stream reaches
decreases—along the continuum from headwater to mid-order mountain streams.
 
 
Anderson, P. L. and M. M. Meerschaert (1998). "Modeling river flows with heavy tails." Water Resources Research 34(9): 2271-2280.
Anderson, R., J., et al. (2004). "Width of streams and rivers in response to vegetation, bank material, and other factors." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40(5): 1159-1172.
An extensive group of datasets was analyzed to examine
factors affecting widths of streams and rivers. Results indicate
that vegetative controls on channel size are scale dependent. In
channels with watersheds greater than 10 to 100 km2, widths are
narrower in channels with thick woody bank vegetation than in
grass lined or nonforested banks. The converse is true in smaller
streams apparently due to interactions between woody debris,
shading, understory vegetation, rooting characteristics, and channel
size. A tree based statistical method (regression tree) is introduced
and tested as a tool for identifying thresholds of response
and interpreting interactions between variables. The implications
of scale dependent controls on channel width are discussed in the
context of stable channel design methods and development of
regional hydraulic geometry curves.
 
 
Anderson, S. A. and N. Sitar (1995). "Analysis of rainfall-induced debris flows." Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 121(7): 544-.
Rainfall-induced debris flows are flow failures in residual and colluvial soils initiated by a reduction of confining stress as a result of pore-water pressure rise during or following periods of intense rainfall. To establish appropriate stability analysis procedures, the behavior of soil from a debris flow source area is investigated. Constant-shear-drained triaxial tests, tests that mimnic the field stress path, and anisotropically consolidated undrained triaxial tests performed at the in-situ stress level indicite that undrained loading is a prerequisite for flow failure. Mechanisms of stress transfer are proposed to explain how the initially drained deformation that occurs along the field stress path can lead to undrained mobilization. Because a debris flow involves both drained initiation and undrained mobilization, a complete stability analysis includes an effective stress analysis with constant-shear-drained parameters to determine the potential for failure initiation, and an undrained strength analysis using undrained residual strength to determine the potential for debris flow mobilization.
 
Anderson, S. P., et al. (1997). "Subsurface flow paths in a steep, unchanneled catchment." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2637-2653.
Andrea Tribe (1992). "Automated recognition of valley lines and drainage networks from grid digital elevation models: a review and a new method." Journal of Hydrology 139: 263-293.
Andrews, E. D. (1979). Scour and Fill In a Stream Channel, East Fork River, Western Wyoming US Geological Survey: 49.
Andrews, E. D. (1984). "Bed-material entrainment and hydraulic geometry of gravel-bed rivers in Colorado." Geological Society of America Bulletin 95: 371-378.
Andrews, H. J. and R. W. Cowlin (1934). Forest resources of the Douglas-fir region, USDA: 169.
Andrle, R. (1994). "Flow structure and development of circular meander pools " Geomorphology 9: 261-270.
Andrus, C. and H. A. Froehlich (1987). Riparian forest development after logging or fire in the Oregon coast range: wildlife habitat and timber value. Symposium on Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions, Washington, Seattle.
Appt, J. (2002). Discriminating between landslide sites and potentially unstable terrain using topographic indices. Forest Engineering. Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University. Master of Science: 116.
A landslide inventory, statistical analyses and a Geographic Information System
(GIS) are used to analyze landslide sites and potentially unstable terrain in the
Oregon Coast Range. The objectives are to evaluate the efficacy of locating
landslide sites with topographic variables and discriminate the difference between
sites where landslides have and have not occurred. The population of known
landslides are characterized as up-slope, non-road related, and associated with 1996
storm events. Topographic variables are derived from a Digital Elevation Model
(DEM) for index construction forming six groups; i) slopes, ii) contributing areas,
iii) ratios of slope and contributing area, iv) curvature v) infinite slope models, and
vi) functions of slope and contributing area based on statistical models. Index
groups employ different algorithms. Index performance is measured with landslide
and aerial densities. Cumulative landslide occurrence is plotted against cumulative
area on a continuous domain of the index to locate a maximum landslide density on
equal size areas. Indices are used to generate model definitions of potentially
unstable terrain based on similarity to the landslide population. Aerial densities of
potentially unstable terrain based on index definitions are determined but no
common metric is achieved. Statistical analyses on spatially stratified data suggest
a significant (α < 0.05) difference between landslides sites and adjoined terrain.
The minimum resolution at which a significant difference is achieved based on
spatial stratification is a three cell radius surrounding the slide population.
Curvature and area discriminate better than simple slope and topographic ratios.
The relative performance is mostly a function of DEM error and resolution, and
spatial correlation. Hydrologic geomorphic models perform about as well as the
topographic ratios, and much less than the simple area index. There is no statistical
evidence to suggest that the hydrologic geomorphic models accurately describe a
threshold in the Mapleton slide population. The lack of significance is likely due to
limitations on the available parameter sets. Logistic regression produced an index
with the highest discrimination performance due to a maximum likelihood
algorithm. Regression models have a physical basis in and parallel the behavior of
linked hydrologic geomorphic and slope stability models. The measured
differences in performance are a useful assessment of the DEM – index
combination.
 
Arave, N. (2008). Locating channel heads with digital elevation models, geology, soils, and spectral data in a geographic information system. Department of Geology, Idaho state University. Master of Science: 74.
This thesis presents a two part investigation into methods for modeling channel
initiation in a geographic information system. For this study channel heads mapped on
USGS 7.5” Topographic quadrangles were used as the “known” dataset. The region of
study was the southern extents of the Beaverhead and Centennial Ranges in Idaho. The
first approach was to evaluate terrain characteristics at channel heads on a point by point
basis. The results of this study indicate the majority of the channel heads in the study
region are on southern facing slopes. The second approach was a paired watershed
assessment of the Beaver Creek and Medicine Lodge Creek basins. The assessment
compared land cover to mean flow accumulation at channel heads. The results from this
study suggested that as percent brush cover increases relative to forest cover the mean
flow accumulation at channel heads will increase
 
Araya, T. and S. Higashi (?). Debris movement in torrential rivers of volcanic areas (DRAFT), Hokkaido University: 22.
Ardizzone, F., et al. (2002). "Impact of mapping errors on the reliability of landslide hazard maps." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 2: 3-14.
Identification and mapping of landslide deposits are an intrinsically difficult and subjective operation that requires a great effort to minimise the inherent uncertainty. For the Staffora Basin, which extends for almost 300 km2 in the northern Apennines, three landslide inventory maps were independently produced by three groups of geomorphologists. In comparing each map with the others, large positional discrepancies arise (in the range of 55–65%). When all three maps are overlain, the locational mismatch of landslide deposit polygons increases to over 80%. To assess the impact of these errors on predictive models of landslide hazard, for the study area discriminant models were built up from the same set of geological-geomorphological factors as predictors, and the occurrence of landslide deposits within each terrain-unit, derived from each inventory map, as dependent variable. The comparison of these models demonstrates that statistical modelling greatly minimises the impact of input data errors which remain, however, a major limitation on the reliability of landslide hazard map
 
Arhonditsis, G., et al. (2002). "Quantitative assessment of agricultural runoff and soil erosion using mathematical modeling: Applications in the Mediterranean region." Environmental Management 30(3): 434-453.
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ASCE Task Committee on Glossary of Hydraulic Modeling Terms of the Committee on Research of the Hydraulics Division (1982). "Modeling Hydraulic Phenomena: A Glossary of Terms." Journal of the Hydraulics Division 108: 845-1982.
ASCE Task Committee on Sediment Transport and Aquatic Habitats, S. C. (1992). "Sediment and aquatic habitat in river systems." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 118(5): 669-687.
Asch, T. W. J. V. and U. V. Steijn (1991). "Temporal patterns of mass movements in the French Alps." Catena 18: 515-527.
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Austin, S. A. (1999). Streamflow response to forest management: a meta-analysis using published data and flow duration curves. Department of Earth Resources. Fort Collins, CO, Colorado State University: 265.
Axelsson, P. (1999). "Processing of laser scanner data - algorithms and applications." ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 54: 138-147.
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Backiel, A., and R.W. Gorte (1992). Clearcutting in the National Forests. C. R. Service, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Washington DC.: 18p.
Badger, T. (1993). Structurally controlled landslides northwestern Olympic Peninsula, USA. Geotechnical Engineering of Hard Soils - Soft Rocks. A. e. al: 1051-1056.
Badger, T. (1993). Structurally-controlled landslides northwestern Olympic Peninsula, USA. Geotechnical Engineering of Hard Soils - Soft Rocks. A. e. al.: 1051.
Badura, G. J., et al. (1974). Siuslaw National Forest Soil resource survey. Corvallis, Oregon, USDA Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest: 139.
Baffaut, C., M.A.Nearing, J.C. Ascough, and B. Liu (1997). "The WEPP watershed model: II Sensitivity analysis and discretization on small watersheds." Transactions of the ASAE 40(4): 935-943.
Bagnold, R. (1977). "Bedload transport by natural rivers." Water Resources Research 13(2): 303-312.
Bagnold, R. (1980). An empirical correlation of bedload transport rates in flumes and natural rivers. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences.
Bagnold, R. (1986). Transport of solids by natural water flow: Evidence of a worldwide correlation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and physical sciences.
Bagnold, R. A. (1954). "Experiments on a gravity free dispersion of large solid spheres in a Newtonian fluid under shear." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 225A: 49-63.
Bagnold, R. A. (1966). An approach to the sediment transport problem from general physics, United States Geological Survey.
Bagnold, R. A. (1973). "The nature of saltation and of 'bed-load' transport in water." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Serial A 332(473-504).
Bagnold, R. A. (1980). "An empirical correlation of bedload transport rates in flumes and natural rivers." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Serial A(372): 453-473.
Bahuguna, D., et al. (2010). "Windthrow and recruitment of large woody debris in riparian stands." Forest Ecology and Management 259: 2048-2055.
To document the impacts of windthrow in riparian leave strips and identify the components needed for
small stream large woody debris (LWD) recruitment modeling, we monitored nine small streams at a
temperate rainforest site in coastal British Columbia. This study was a component of a larger integrated
study of forest management impacts on small streams. A series of small clearcuts were harvested in 1998
in a 70-year-old second growth stand that had regenerated naturally following logging and wildfire. Three
cutblocks each were assigned to 10m and 30m buffer width treatments and three areas were assigned
as unharvested controls. Seven years after the 1998 logging, all logs greater than 10cm diameter that
spanned at least part of stream channel width were measured. A total of 179 logs were recorded. Postharvest
windthrow was higher in the 10m buffer treatment, while competition-related standing tree
mortality was higher in the controls. The major windthrow events had occurred in the first and second
years after logging of adjacent stands. There was no significant difference in the number of spanning
and in-stream logs in the 10 m, 30m buffer and control treatments. More than 90% of the LWD was in
the 10–30cm diameter classes. The majority of logs were oriented perpendicular to the stream channel.
At the time of measurement, the majority of these trees were still suspended above the stream channel,
indicating that the recruitment of logs into the stream channel is a long-term process. Time to recruitment
into the channel is dependent on log and valley geometry, log size, species, and log condition prior to
toppling. Log height above stream was negatively correlated with log decay class and valley width. Log
length was negatively correlated with state of decay, and many windthrown logs were in an advanced
state of decay before they entered the stream.
 
Bailey, R. G., P.E. Avers,  T. King, and W.H. McNab (1994). Ecoregions and subregions of the United States (map). 1:7,500,000. With supplementary table of map unit descriptions, compiled and edited by W. H. McNab and R. G. Bailey. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
Bajracharya, D. (1983). "Deforestation in the food/fuel context historical and political perspectives from Nepal." Mountain Research and Development 3(3): 227-240.
Bak, P. (1994). Self-Organized Criticality: A Holistic View of Nature. Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality. G. Cowan, D. Pines and D. Maltzer. Upton, New York, Addison-Wesley. XIX: 477-496.
Baker, V. R. and C. R. Twidale (1991). "The reenchantment of geomorphology." Geomorphology 4: 73-100.
Baker, W. L. (1989). "Effect of scale and spatial heterogeneity on fire-interval distributions." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19: 700-706.
The distribution of forest-fire intervals has been characterized by fitting statistical distributions, such as that of Weibull. the papameters of fitted distributions can then be used to compare fire regimes. Fire-interval distributions for the 187-year presettlement fire history record in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota, were analyzed using reconstructed "fire-year" maps. Distributions were determined for sampling units at five spatial scales, from about 25,000 to 400,000 ha. Fire-interval distributions varied from positively to negatively skewed, but for most units the Weibull distribution fit significantly. The distributions varied spatially, and cluster analysis suggested that three fire regions, each containing a relatively homogeneous fire regime, could be identified. The sources of theis spatial variation are unknown. There was less variation between scales within a fire region thatn between fire regions. This contrasts with a previous finding, using the same fire-history data, that scale substantially affects observed landscape age-class distribution. This disparity arises because landscape age-class distributions may fluctuate even if fire-interval distributions do not fluctuate. Reconstruction of fire-interval distributions requires historical data; landscape age-class distributions at an instant in time are insufficient.
 
Balasscio, C. C., D.J. Palmeri, and H. Gao (1998). "Use of a genetic algorithm and multi-objective programming for callibration of a hydrologic model." Transactions of the ASAE 41(3): 615-619.
Barnes, H. H. (1967). Roughness characteristics of natural channels, U.S. Geological Survey: 1849.
Barnowsky, C. W. (1981). "A record of late Quaternary vegetation from Davis Lake, southern Puget Lowland, Washington." Quaternary Research 16: 221-239.
Barrett, J. C. and W. J. Conroy (2001). Evaluation of timber harvest impacts on water quality. American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS, vol.01-1. J. J. Warwick: 205-210.
The Pacific Lumber Company (PALCO) in 1999 signed a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) that commits it to conduct watershed analysis studies, monitoring, and research to determine how its timber harvesting practices impact water quality, and how best to reduce those impacts. The watershed analysis assesses impacts to water quality by evaluating sediment inputs to streams and the ability of riparian forest stands to protect beneficial uses of water. Studies to date have documented that surface erosion from roads is the primary impact to water quality in low relief portions of the ownership, whereas mass wasting processes are the predominant impact in high relief areas. Research efforts have focused on calibration and use of the USFS Water Erosion Potential Project (WEPP) model to estimate sediment volumes generated by timber harvest operations. The work includes evaluation of the effectiveness of hillslope management strategies and riparian buffers in preventing sediment delivery to streams.
 
Barrett, J. C. and W. J. Conroy (2002). Use of watershed scale sediment budgets for timberlands mitigation development. American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS, vol.02-1. J. R. Lesnik. Bethesda, AWRA - American Water Resources Association: 459-463.
The Pacific Lumber Company (PALCO) owns 225,000 acres of industrial timberlands in coastal Northern California watersheds that drain to tidal estuaries, or salt-water bays used by anadromous salmonids (e.g., coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch). PALCO's Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) commits the Company to conduct research and monitoring studies, including watershed analysis, to determine how management activities affect sediment delivery rates to streams. Much of this work has focused on development of watershed scale sediment budgets that quantify inputs from harvest, roads, site preparation, and other silvicultural activities. These sediment budgets, because they specifically identify both the mechanisms of sediment delivery, and their relative magnitude, can be used to develop cost-effective sediment mitigation strategies. Examples from the Freshwater Creek and Van Duzen watersheds are presented.
 
Barro, S. C., and S. G. Conrad (1991). "Fire effects on California chaparral systems: an overview." Environment International 17: 135-149.
Barry, J., JM Buffington, and JG King (2004). "A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel-bed rivers." Water Resources Research 40(w10401): 22p.
Barry, J. J., et al. (2004). "A general power equation for predicting bed load transport rates in gravel bed rivers." Water Resources Research 40(doi:10.1029/2004WR003190): 22.
Barry, R. G. (1990). "Changes in mountain climate and glacio-hydrological responses." Mountain Research and Development 10(2): 161-170.
Bartle, H. (1999). "Analyzing the Effectiveness of Common Road Construction and Deactivation Techniques." Streamline: Water Restoration Technical Bulletin 4(2): 9.
Bartlein, P. J., S.W. Hostetler, S.L. Shafer, J.O. Holman, and A.M. Solomon (2003). The seasonal cycle of wildfire and climate in the western United States. The 5th Symposium on Fire and Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, Orlando, FL. Paper p3.9.
Bartlein, P. J., S.W. Hostetler, S.L. Shafer, J.O. Holman, and A.M. Solomon (2008). "Temporal and spatial structure in a daily wildfire-start data set from the Western United States (1986-96)." International Journal of Wildland Fire 17: 8-17.
Bartley, R. and I. Rutherfurd (2002). Techniques to quantify the variability of thalveg profiles. The Structure, Function and Management Implications of Fluvial Sedimentary Systems. F. J. Dyer, M. C. Thoms and J. M. Olley, International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 276: 35-44.
This paper presents a range of techniques for quantifying the variability of thalweg profiles. Previous research has shown that the thalweg is an important morphological and ecological feature in stream systems, however, the tools to measure the morphological diversity of thalweg profiles are limited (at the reach scale using a horizontal interval of ~2 m). The methods presented are evaluated against synthetic data to determine which techniques would be most appropriate for quantifying thalweg data collected in the field. The results suggest that three techniques are the most appropriate for quantifying thalweg diversity (the wiggliness factor w, fractal dimension D, and standard deviation of depths).
 
Bartz, K. K., et al. (2006). "Translating restoration scenarios into habitat conditions: an initial step in evaluating recovery strategies for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 63: 1578-1595.
One of the challenges associated with recovering imperiled species, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha), is identifying a set of actions that will ensure species’ persistence. Here we evaluate the effects of alternative
land use scenarios on habitat conditions potentially important to Chinook salmon. We first summarize the alternative
scenarios as target levels for certain land use characteristics. We then use the target levels to estimate changes in
current habitat conditions. The scenarios we explore indicate considerable potential to improve both the quality and
quantity of salmon habitat through protection and restoration. Results from this analysis constitute the habitat inputs to
a population model linking changes in habitat to salmon population status. By transparently documenting the approach
we use to translate land use actions into changes in salmon habitat conditions, we provide decision makers with a clear
basis for choosing strategies to recover salmon.
 
Basnyat, P., et al. The use of remote sensing and GIS in watershed level analyses of non-point source pollution problems. Forest Ecology and Management 128 (1/2), 65-73 pp.;   34 ref.; 2000. L. G. Arvanitis.
Basin characteristics such as land use/land cover, slope, and soil attributes affect water quality by regulating sediment and chemical concentration. Among these characteristics, land use/land cover can be manipulated to gain improvements in water quality. These land use/land cover types can serve as nutrient detention media or as nutrient transformers as dissolved or suspended nutrients move towards the stream. This study examines a methodology to determine nitrate pollution 'contributing zones' within a given basin based on basin characteristics. The study area was a portion of the Fish River drainage basin (watershed) in Alabama, USA, which feeds into Weeks Bay, and is eventually connected directly to the Gulf of Mexico. The analysis involved classifying land use/land cover types, and delineating basins and 'contributing zones' using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS, Landsat thematic mapper data, SPOT panchromatic imagery, aerial photography) analysis tools. A 'land use/land cover-nutrient-linkage-model' was developed which suggests that forests act as a sink, and that as the proportion of forest inside a contributing zone increases (or the proportion of agricultural land decreases), nitrate levels downstream will decrease. In the model, the residential/urban/built-up areas have been identified as strong contributors of nitrate. Other contributors were orchards, and row crops and other agricultural activities.
 
Batalla, R. J., et al. (1999). "Field observations on hyperconcentrated flows in mountain torrents." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 24: 247-253.
Bates, D. (1988). Water Temperature: A Case of Cumulative Effects?, Gifford Pinchot National Forest, Wind River Ranger District: 10.
filed
 
Bates, D., et al. (1998). "North Santiam River Turbidity Study, 1996/1997." Watershed Management Council Networker: 1-19.
Bathurst, J. C. (1978). "Flow resistance of large-scale roughness." Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of the Hydraulics Division 104(HY12): 1587-1603.
Bathurst, J. C. (1982). Flow resistance in boulder-bed streams. Gravel-bed Rivers. R. D. Hey, J. C. Bathurst and C. R. Thorne. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons 443-465.
Bathurst, J. C. (1993). Flow resistance through the channel network. Channel Network Hydrology. K. Beven and M. J. Kirkby, John Wiley & Lons Ltd.: 69-98.
Bathurst, J. C. (2002). "At-a-site variation and minimum flow resistance for mountain rivers " Journal of Hydrology 269: 11-26.
Bathurst, J. C., et al. (1997). "Debris flow run-out and landslide sediment delivery model tests." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 123: 410-419.
Bathurst, J. C., et al. (1983). Bedforms and flow resistance in steep gravel-bed channels. Mechanics of Sediment Transport. B. M. Sumer and A. Muller. Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Balkema: 215-221.
Battin, J., et al. (2007). "Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration." Proceedings of the Natonal Academy of Sciences of the USA 104(16): 6720-6725.
Throughout the world, efforts are under way to restore watersheds,
but restoration planning rarely accounts for future climate
change. Using a series of linked models of climate, land cover,
hydrology, and salmon population dynamics, we investigated the
impacts of climate change on the effectiveness of proposed habitat
restoration efforts designed to recover depleted Chinook salmon
populations in a Pacific Northwest river basin. Model results
indicate a large negative impact of climate change on freshwater
salmon habitat. Habitat restoration and protection can help to
mitigate these effects and may allow populations to increase in the
face of climate change. The habitat deterioration associated with
climate change will, however, make salmon recovery targets much
more difficult to attain. Because the negative impacts of climate
change in this basin are projected to be most pronounced in
relatively pristine, high-elevation streams where little restoration
is possible, climate change and habitat restoration together are
likely to cause a spatial shift in salmon abundance. River basins that
span the current snow line appear especially vulnerable to climate
change, and salmon recovery plans that enhance lower-elevation
habitats are likely to be more successful over the next 50 years than
those that target the higher-elevation basins likely to experience
the greatest snow–rain transition.
 
 
Baum, R. L., et al. (2002). Regional Landslide-Hazard Assessment - An Example from Seattle, Washington. IX Great Lakes Geotechnical/Geoenvironmental Conference, Dayton, Ohio.
Baxter, C., V., et al. (1999). "Geomorphology, logging roads, and the distribution of Bull Trout spawning in a forested river basin: implications for management and conservation." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128: 854-867.
The Swan Basin in Montana is considered a stronghold of regional significance for
the bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a native char whose populations are fragmented and declining
throughout its range. We used correlation analysis to examine spatial and temporal variation of
bull trout redd count data (1982–1995) relative to geomorphic and land-use factors among nine
principal spawning tributaries of the Swan River. Bull trout redd numbers were positively correlated
with the extent of alluvial valley segments bounded by knickpoints and negatively correlated with
the density of logging roads in spawning tributary catchments. The density of logging roads in
spawning tributary catchments was not significantly correlated with geomorphic factors. Temporal
trends among the principal spawning streams were variable. In four of the nine principal spawning
streams, redd numbers increased significantly during the survey period, and in the remaining
streams, redd numbers showed no significant change. Changes in redd numbers with time were
negatively correlated with catchment road density and positively correlated with the extent of
bounded alluvial valley segments. The significance of bounded alluvial valley segments to bull
trout spawning habitat may be related to groundwater–surface water exchange occurring within
these segments. Our results emphasize the importance of valley geomorphology to bull trout, and
our results suggest that prior land use may have adversely affected bull trout populations in the
Swan Basin. Protection of critical spawning tributary catchments from additional road building
and associated land-use disturbance will likely be necessary for the maintenance of viable bull
trout populations in the Swan Basin. Geomorphic context and land-use status of spawning tributaries
are important considerations for future monitoring and management of this species.
 
 
Baxter, C., V. and F. R. Hauer (2000). "Geomorphology, hyporheic exchange, and selection of spawning habitat by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 57: 1470-1481.
The distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning were affected by geomorphology
and hyporheic groundwater – stream water exchange across multiple spatial scales in streams of the Swan River
basin, northwestern Montana. Among spawning tributary streams, the abundance of bull trout redds increased with increased
area of alluvial valley segments that were longitudinally confined by geomorphic knickpoints. Among all valley
segment types, bull trout redds were primarily found in these bounded alluvial valley segments, which possessed complex
patterns of hyporheic exchange and extensive upwelling zones. Bull trout used stream reaches for spawning that
were strongly influenced by upwelling. However, within these selected reaches, bull trout redds were primarily located
in transitional bedforms that possessed strong localized downwelling and high intragravel flow rates. The changing relationship
of spawning habitat selection, in which bull trout selected upwelling zones at one spatial scale and
downwelling zones at another spatial scale, emphasizes the importance of considering multiple spatial scales within a
hierarchical geomorphic context when considering the ecology of this species or plans for bull trout conservation and
restoration.
 
 
Baxter, C. V. (2001). Fish movement and assemblage dynamics in a Pacific Northwest Riverscape. Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University.
Baxter, C. V. and F. R. Hauer (2000). "Geomorphology, hyporheic exchange, and selection of spawning habitat by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)." Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci 57: 1470-1481.
Bayley, P. B. and H. W. Li (1999). Riverine Fishes. The River Handbook Vol. 1. P. Calow and G. E. Petts. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications: 251-281.
Beamer, E. M., et al. (2005). Linking watershed conditions to egg-to-fry survival of Skagit chinook salmon. Skagit Chinook Recovery Plan. S. R. S. Cooperative.
Beamer, E. M. and G. Pess (2005). Effects of peak flows on Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning success in two Puget Sound river basins. Stillaguamish Watershed Chinook Salmon Recovery Plan. S. I. R. Committee, Snohomish County Department of Public Works: 4.
Bear, J. (1972). Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. New York, American Elsevier Publishing Co.
Beatty, D. A. and N. Tatsuaki (1984). "Modeling of River Channel Changes "? 110(2): 262-265.
Beaty, C. B. (1974). "Debris flows, alluvial fans, and a revitalized catastrophism." Z. Geomorph. N.F. 21: 39-51.
Beaty, K. G. (1994). "Sediment transport in a small stream following 2 successive forest-fires." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51(12): 2723-2733.
The transport of stream bedload sediment was monitored continuously in a small stream from 1975 to 1982 following forest fires in 1974 and 1980. The stream is located in the east subcatchment (170 ha) of Lake 239 in the Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. Precipitation, stream discharge, bedload transport, and concentration of suspended materials were measured quantitatively and organic debris was observed and collected. Bedload transport increased 20-fold following the first fire and threefold after the second. Particle sizes tended to increase during the period of study. Bedload data suggest a recovery period of 5-6 yr following the first fire and a shorter one following the second. A mass budget of material load transported in a single year following recovery indicated a dominance of dissolved load (87%), followed by suspended load (10%), and bedload (3%).
 
Becker, A., and P. Braun (1999). "Disaggregation, aggregation, and spatial scaling in hydrological modelling." 217: 239-252.
Beechie, T. (1988). Stream Classification Literature Search, University of Washington: 5.
Beechie, T., et al. (1995). Restoration of habitat-forming processes in Pacific Northwest watersheds: a locally adaptable approach to aquatic habitat restoration. Proceedings of Society for Ecological Restoration, Seattle, Washington.
Beechie, T., et al. (1994). "Estimating Coho Salmon Rearing Habitat and Smolt Production Losses in a Large River Basin, and Implications for Habitat Restoration." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14: 797-811.
Beechie, T., et al. (1994). "Estimating coho salmon rearing habitat and smolt production losses in a large river basin, and implications for habitat restoration." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14: 797-811.
Beechie, t., et al. (2008). Hierarchical physical controls on salmonid spawning location and timing. Salmonid spawning habitat in rivers: physical controls, biological responses, and approaches to remediation. D. A. Sear and P. DeVries. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society. Symposium 65: 83-101.
Beechie, T. J. (1998). Rates and pathways of recovery for sediment supply and woody debris recruitment in northwestern Washington streams, and implications for salmonid habitat restoration, University of Washington: 91.
Beechie, T. J. (2001). "Empirical predictors of annual bed load travel distance, and implications for salmonid habitat resotration and protection." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 1025-1034.
Beechie, T. J. (2001). "Empirical predictors of annual bed load travel distance, and implications for salmonid habitat restoration and protection." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 1025-1034.
Beechie, T. J. and S. Bolton (1999). "an approach to restoring salmonid habitat-forming processes in Pacific Northwest watersheds." Fisheries 24(4): 6-15.
We present an approach to diagnosing salmonid habitat degradation and restoring habitat-forming
processes that is focused on causes of habitat degradation rather than on effects of degradation.
The approach is based on the understanding that salmonid stocks are adapted to local freshwater conditions
and that their environments are naturally temporally dynamic. In this context, we define a
goal of restoring the natural rates and magnitudes of habitat-forming processes, and we allow for locally
defined restoration priorities. The goal requires that historical reconstruction focus on diagnosing
disruptions to processes rather than conditions. Historical reconstruction defines the suite of restoration
tasks, which then may be prioritized based on local biological objectives. We illustrate the use of this
approach for two habitat-forming processes: sediment supply and stream shading. We also briefly
contrast this approach to several others that may be used as components of a restoration strategy.
 
Beechie, T. J., et al. (2001). "Holocene and Recent Geomorphic Proceses, Land Use, and Salmonid Habitat in two North Puget Sound River Basins." Geomorphic Processes and Riverine Habitat Water Science and Application 4: 37-54.
Beechie, T. J., et al. (2006). "Incorporation parameter uncertainty into evaluation of spawning habitat limitations on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 63: 1242-1250.
Incorporating parameter uncertainty into a Monte Carlo procedure for estimating spawning habitat capacity
helped determine that spawning habitat availability is unlikely to limit recovery of six populations of Chinook salmon
(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound. Spawner capacity estimates spanned up to four orders of magnitude, yet
there was virtually no overlap of distributions of capacity estimates with distributions of current spawner abundance
(<0.2% overlap), except for the Suiattle River population (51% overlap). Empirical distributions of input parameters
contained several important sources of uncertainty, insuring reasonably wide distributions of capacity estimates. The
most defensible ranges of input parameters tended to produce conservative capacity estimates, indicating that increased
model accuracy would only strengthen our conclusion that spawning habitat is not a constraint on these populations.
There are insufficient data with which to develop parameter distributions that better represent historical capacity, which
would certainly be higher than our estimates. Our results suggest that factors other than spawning capacity limit population
size and that recovery efforts for Skagit River Chinook salmon need not focus on spawning habitat restoration
 
Beechie, T. J., et al. (2005). "A classification of habitat types in a large river and their use by juvenile salmonids." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134: 717-729.
We describe six habitat types for large rivers (.100 m bank-full width), including
pools, riffles, and glides in midchannel and bank edges, bar edges, and backwaters along channel
margins. Midchannel units were deeper and faster than edge units on average. Among edge habitat
types, backwater units had the lowest velocities and contained complex cover consisting mainly
of wood accumulations and aquatic plants. Banks and bars had similar velocity distributions, but
banks had more complex cover such as rootwads and debris jams. Because sampling of juvenile
salmonids was ineffective in the midchannel units (electrofishing capture efficiency was low, and
the units were too deep and fast to snorkel), we focused our sampling efforts on juvenile salmonid
use of edge habitats during winter, spring, and late summer. Densities of juvenile Chinook salmon
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and coho salmon O. kisutch were highest in bank and backwater units
in winter, whereas age-0 and age-1 or older steelhead densities were highest in bank units in
winter. In summer, only coho salmon densities were significantly different among edge unit types,
densities being highest in banks and backwaters. Microhabitat selection (velocity, depth, and cover
type) by juvenile salmonids mirrored that in small streams, most fish occupying areas with a
velocity less than 15 cm/s and wood cover. Among ocean-type salmon, Chinook and chum salmon
fry were captured in large numbers in all edge units and exhibited only slightly higher densities
in low-velocity areas (,15 cm/s).
 
Beechie, T. J., et al. (2006). "Channel pattern and river-floodplain dynamics in forested mountain river systems." Geomorphology 78: 124-141.
Channel pattern effectively stratifies the dynamics of rivers and floodplains in forested mountain river systems of the Pacific
Northwest, USA. Straight channels are least dynamic, with relatively slow floodplain turnover and floodplains dominated by old
surfaces. Braided channels are most dynamic, with floodplain turnover as low as 25 years and predominantly young floodplain
surfaces. Island-braided and meandering channels have intermediate dynamics, with moderately frequent disturbances (erosion of
floodplain patches) maintaining a mix of old and young surfaces. Return intervals for the erosion of floodplains increase in the
order of braided, island-braided, meandering, and straight (8, 33, 60, and 89 years, respectively). A threshold for the lateral
migration of a channel occurs at a bankfull width of 15–20 m. The most likely mechanism underlying this threshold is that larger
channels are deep enough to erode below the rooting zone of bank vegetation. Above this threshold, channels not confined between
valley walls exhibit channel patterns distinguishable by slope and discharge, and slope–discharge domains can be used to predict
channel patterns. Meandering and braided patterns are most consistently identified by the model, and prediction errors are largely
associated with indistinct transitions among channel patterns that are adjacent in plots of slope against discharge. Locations of
straight channels are difficult to identify accurately with the current model. The predicted spatial distribution of channel patterns
reflects a downstream decline in channel slope, which is likely correlated with a declining ratio of bed load to suspended load.
Ecological theory suggests that biological diversity should be highest where the intermediate disturbance regime of island-braided
channels sustains high diversity of habitat and successional states through time.
 
Beechie, T. J., et al. (2000). "Modeling recovery rates and pathways for woody debris recruitment in northwestern Washington streams." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20: 436-452.
We modeled large woody debris (LWD) recruitment and pool formation in northwestern Washington
streams after simulated stand-clearing disturbance using two computer models:
Forest Vegetation Simulator for stand development and Riparian-in-a-Box for LWD recruitment,
depletion, and pool formation. We evaluated differences in LWD recruitment and pool formation
among different combinations of channel size, successional pathway, and stand management scenario.
The models predict that time to first recruitment of pool-forming LWD is about 50% shorter
for red alder Alnus rubra than for Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii at all channel widths. Total
LWD abundance increases faster in red alder stands than in Douglas-fir stands but declines rapidly
after 70 years as the stand dies and pieces decompose. Initial recovery is slower for Douglas-fir
stands, but LWD recruitment is sustained longer. Total LWD abundance increases faster with
decreasing channel size, and pool abundance increases faster with decreasing channel width and
increasing channel slope. The models predict that thinning of the riparian forest does not increase
recruitment of pool-forming LWD where the trees are already large enough to form pools in the
adjacent channel and that thinning reduces the availability of adequately sized wood. Thinning
increases LWD recruitment where trees are too small to form pools and, because of reduced
competition, trees more rapidly attain pool-forming size. On channels less than 20 m wide, thinning
of red alder and underplanting shade-tolerant conifers will reduce near-term alder recruitment and
increase long-term conifer recruitment. However, the same treatment on channels more than 20
m wide may increase both near-term and long-term recruitment. Compared with the natural fire
regime, timber harvest rotations of 40–80 years during the past century have reduced the percentage
of riparian stands that can provide LWD of pool-forming size to streams, especially in channels
at least 20 m wide.
 
Beechie, T. J., et al. (2000). "Modeling Recovery Rates and Pathways for Woody Debris Recruitment in Northwestern Washington Streams." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 20: 436-452.
Beechie, T. J. and T. Sibley, H. (1997). "Relationships Between Channel Characteristics, Woody Debris, and Fish Habitat in Northwestern Washington Streams." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126: 217-229.
Beechie, T. J. and T. H. Sibley (1997). "Relationships between channel characteristics, woody debris, and fish habitat in Northwestern Washington streams." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126: 217-229.
Beechie, T. J., et al., Eds. (2003). Ecosystem recovery planning for listed salmon: an integrated assessment approach for salmon habitat. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-58, U.S. Dept. Commerce.
Beeson, C. E. and P. F. Doyle (1995). "Comparison of bank erosion at vegetated and non-vegetated channel bends." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 31(6): 983-990.
Beeson, P. C., S.N.Martens, and D.D. Breshears (2001). "Simulating overland flow following wildfire: mapping vulnerability to landscape disturbance." Hydrological Processes 15: 2917-2930.
Beget, J. E. (1984). "Tephrochronology of Late Wisconsin Deglaciation and Holocene Glacier Fluctuations Near Glacier Peak, North Cascade Range, Washington." Quaternary Research 21: 304-316.
Begin, Z. B. (1982). Application of "diffusion" degradation to some aspects of drainage net development. Badland Geomorphology and Piping. R. Bryan and A. Yain, Geobooks. chapter 9: 169-179.
Begin, Z. B. (1988). "Application of a diffusion-erosion model to alluvial channels which degrade due to base-level lowering." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 13: 487-500.
Begin, Z. e. B. (1987). "ERFUS - A FORTRAN Program for Calculating the Response of Alluvial Channels to Baselevel Lowering." Computers and Geosciences 13(4): 389-398.
Bell, R. and T. Glade (2004). "Quantitative risk analysis for landslides - Examples from Bíldudalur, NW-Iceland." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 4: 117-131.
Although various methods to carry out quantitative
landslide risk analyses are available, applications are
still rare and mostly dependent on the occurrence of disasters.
In Iceland, two catastrophic snow avalanches killed 34
people in 1995. As a consequence the Ministry of the Environment
issued a new regulation on hazard zoning due to
snow avalanches and landslides in 2000, which aims to prevent
people living or working within the areas most at risk
until 2010. The regulation requires to carry out landslide and
snow avalanche risk analyses, however, a method to calculate
landslide risk adopted to Icelandic conditions is still missing.
Therefore, the ultimate goal of this study is to develop such
a method for landslides, focussing on debris flows and rock
falls and to test it in B´ýldudalur, NW-Iceland.
Risk analysis, beside risk evaluation and risk management,
is part of the holistic concept of risk assessment. Within this
study, risk analysis is considered only, focussing on the risks
to life. To calculate landslide risk, the spatial and temporal
probability of occurrence of potential damaging events, as
well as the distribution of the elements at risk in space and
time, considering also changing vulnerabilities, must be determined.
Within this study, a new raster-based approach is developed.
Thus, all existent vector data are transferred into raster
data using a resolution of 1m×1m. The specific attribute
data are attributed to the grid cells, resulting in specific raster
data layers for each input parameter. The calculation of the
landslide risk follows a function of the input parameters hazard,
damage potential of the elements at risk, vulnerability,
probability of the spatial impact, probability of the temporal
impact and probability of the seasonal occurrence. Finally,
results are upscaled to a resolution of 20m×20m and are
presented as individual risk to life and object risk to life for
each process. Within the quantitative landslide risk analysis
the associated uncertainties are estimated qualitatively.
In the study area the highest risks throughout all of the
analyses (individual risk to life and object risk to life) are
caused by debris flows, followed by rock falls, showing that
risk heavily varies depending on the process considered. The
resultant maps show areas, in which the individual risk to
life exceeds the acceptable risk (defined in the aforementioned
regulation), so that for these locations risk reduction
measures should be developed and implemented. It can be
concluded that the newly developed method works satisfactory
and is applicable to further catchments in Iceland, and
potentially to further countries with different environmental
settings.
 
Bellamy, K., et al. (1992). River morphology, sediments and fish habitats Erosion and Sediment Transport Monitoring Programmes in River Basins, IAHS.
Benavides-Solorio, J., and L.H. MacDonald (2001). "Post-fire runoff and erosion from simulated rainfall on small plots, Colorado Front Range." Hydrological Processes 15(15): 2931-2952.
Wildfires in the Colorado Front Range can trigger dramatic increases in runoff and erosion. A better understanding of the causes of these increases is needed to predict the effects of future wildfires, estimate runoff and erosion risks front prescribed fires. and design effective post-fire rehabilitation treatments. The objective of this project was to determine whether runoff and sediment yields were significantly related to the site variables of burn severity, percent cover, soil water repellency. soil moisture, time since burning, and slope. To eliminate the variability due to natural rainfall events, we applied an artificial storm of approximately 80 mm h(-1) on 26 1 m(2) plots in the summer and fall of 2000, The plots were distributed among a June 2000 wildfire, a November 1999 prescribed fire, and a July 1994 wildfire.For 23 of the 26 plots the ratio of runoff to rainfall exceeded 50%. Nearly all sites exhibited strong natural or fire-induced water repellency, so the runoff ratios were only 15-30% larger for the high-severity plots in the two more recent fires than for the unburned or low-severity plots, The two high-severity plots in the 1994 wildfire had very low runoff ratios., and this probably was due to the high soil moisture conditions at the time of the simulated rainfall and the resulting reduction in the natural water repellency. Sediment yields from the high-severity sites in the two more recent fires were 10-26 times greater than the unburned and low-severity plots. The plots burned at high severity in 1994 yielded only slightly more sediment than the unburned plots. Percent ground cover explained 81% of the variability in sediment yields, and the sediment yields from the plots in the 1994 wildfire are consistent with the observed recovery in percent ground cover. Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Benavides-Solorio, J. (2003). Post-fire runoff and erosion at the plot and hillslope scale, Colorado Front Range.  Ph.D. dissertation. Fort Collins, Colorado, Colorado State University: 218pp.
Benavides-Solorio, J., and L.H. MacDonald (2005). "Measurement and prediction of post-fire erosion at the hillslope scale, Colorado Front Range." International Journal of Wildland Fire 14(1): 1-18.
Benda, L.
Benda, L. (1980). Greenwater Debris Flow Lab #5.
Benda, L. (1988). Debris flows in the Oregon Coast Range. Department of Geological Sciences. Seattle, University of Washington: 140.
Benda, L. (1988). Debris flows in the Tyee Sandstone Formation of the Oregon Coast Range. Dept. of Geological Sciences. Seattle, WA, University of Washington. Master's: 125.
Benda, L. (1990). "The influence of debris flows on channels and valley floors in the Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 15: 457-466.
Benda, L. (1990). Reconstructing precipitation regimes during the last 10,000 years for the purpose of modelling hillslope erosion in the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA, University of Washington.
Benda, L. (1994). Stochastic Geomorphology in a Humid Mountain Landscape. Geological Sciences. Seattle, WA, University of Washington: 356.
Benda, L., and T. Dunne (1997). "Stochastic forcing of sediment supply to channel networks from landsliding and debris flow." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2849-2863.
Benda, L., and D. Miller (2001). "Beyond arm waving: thinking critically at large scales." Watershed Management Council Networker 10(1): 1-16.
Benda, L. (2008). Confluence environments at the scale of river networks. River Confluences, Tributaries and the Fluvial Network. A. R. S. Rice, B. Rhoads. West Sussex, England, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chapter 13: 271-297.
Benda, L. (2010). "TEST."
Benda, L. (TEST). TEST.
Benda, L., et al. (2004). "Tributary effects in river networks: role of basin scale, basin shape, network geometry, and disturbance regimes." Water Resources Research 40: 1-15.
Benda, L., et al. (1992). "Morphology and Evolution of Salmonid Habitats in a Recently Deglaciated River Basin, Washington State, USA." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(6): 1246-1256.
Benda, L. and T. Dunne (1987). Sediment routing by debris flow. Erosion and Sediment Transport in Pacific Rim Steeplands. Christchurch, IAHS. Publ. no 165: 213-223.
Benda, L. and T. Dunne (1997). "Stochastic forcing of sediment supply to channel networks from landsliding and debris flow." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2849-2863.
Benda, L., et al. (2005). "Geomorphology of Steepland Headwaters: The Transition from Hillslopes to Channels." Journal of American Water Resources Association 41(4): 835-851.
Benda, L., et al. (1992). "The geomorphic structure and evolution of fish habitat in a recently deglaciated river valley, Washington, USA." Canadian Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(6): 1246-1256.
Benda, L. and D. Miller (2002). Landscape dynamics and forest management. General Technical Report RMR@-GTR-101-CD, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Benda, L., et al. (2003). "Effects of post-wildfire erosion on channel environments, Boise River, Idaho." Journal of Forest Ecology and Management 178: 105-119.
Benda, L., et al. (2004). "Network dynamics hypothesis: spatial and temporal organization of physical heterogeneity in rivers." BioScience 54(5): 413-427.
Benda, L., et al. (accepted). "Network disturbance hypothesis: spatial and temporal organization of physical heterogeneity in rivers." BioScience.
Benda, L., et al. (2009). "Future of applied watershed science at regional scales." EOS, Transaction American Geophysical Union 90(18 (May 5, 2009)): 156-157.
Benda, L., et al. (in press). Wood budgeting: quantitative theory, field practice, and modeling. Wood in World Rivers, American Fisheries Society. Chapter XX.
Benda, L., et al. (2003). Wood Recruitment Processes and Wood Budgeting. The Ecology and Management of Wood in World Rivers. S. V. Gregory, K. Boyer and A. M. Gurnell, American Fisheries Society: 49 - 73.
Benda, L., et al. (2007). "NetMap: A new tool in support of watershed science and resource management." Forest Science 52(2): 206-219.
Benda, L., et al. (2007). "NetMap: A new tool in support of watershed science and resource management." Forest Science 53(2): 206-219.
An integrated suite of numerical models and analysis tools (NetMap) is created for three purposes: (1) Develop regional scale terrain databases in support of watershed science and resource management, (2) Automate numerous kinds of watershed analyses keying on environmental variability for diversifying resource management options, and (3) Improve tools and skills for interpreting watershed-level controls on aquatic systems, including natural disturbance. Hillslope attributes, such as erosion potential, sediment supply, road density, forest age, and fire risk are aggregated down to the channel habitat scale (20-200 m) allowing unique overlap analyses, and they are accumulated downstream in networks revealing patterns across multiple scales. Watershed attributes are aggregated up to subbasin scales (∼10,000 ha), allowing comparative analyses across large watersheds and landscapes. Approximately 25 automated tools address erosion risk, habitat indices, channel classification, habitat core areas, habitat diversity, and sediment and wood supply, among others. Search functions target overlaps between specific hillslope and channel conditions and between roads and landslide or debris flow potential. To facilitate its use, NetMap contains hyperlinked users' manuals and reference materials, including a library of 50 watershed parameters. NetMap provides decision support for forestry, restoration, monitoring, conservation, and regulation
 
Benda, L., et al. (1998). Dynamic Landscape Systems. River Ecology and Management: Lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby, Springer-Verlag. Chapter 11: 261-288.
Benda, L., et al. (2003). Wood recruitment processes and wood budgeting. the Ecology and Management of Wood in World Rivers. S. V. Gregory, K. L. Boyer and A. M. Gurnell. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society. Symposium 37: 49-73.
Benda, L., et al. (in press). "Improving Interdisciplinary Collaborations: Comparative Analysis."
Benda, L., et al. (2002). "How to Avoid Train Wrecks When Using Science in Environmental Problem Solving." BioScience 52(12): 1127-1136.
Benda, L. and G. Reeves (1999). Stochastic and Deterministic Origins of Aquatic Habitats. 1999 Meeting, San Francisco, CA, American Geophysical Union.
Benda, L. and J. Sias (1998). Landscape controls on wood abundance in streams. Seattle, WA, Earth Systems Institute: 60.
Benda, L. and J. Sias (2003). "A quantitative framework for evaluating the mass balance of wood in streams." Journal of Forest Ecology and Management 172: 1-16.
Benda, L., et al. (2003). "Debris flows as agents of morphological heterogeneity at low-order confluences, Olympic Mountains, Washington." Geological Society of America Bulletin 115(9): 1110-1121.
Benda, L., et al. (1997). Slope Instability and Forest Land Managers. Seattle, Washington, Earth Systems Institute.
Benda, L., et al. (1997). Slope Instability and Forest Land Managers: A Primer and Field Guide, Earth Systems Institute.
Benda, L. E. (1985). Behavior and effect of debris flows on streams in the Oregon Coast Range. Delineation of Landslide, Flash Flood, and Debris Flow hazards in Utah. D. S. Bowles: 153-162.
Benda, L. E. (1988). Debris flows in the Oregon Coast Range. Department of Geological Sciences. Seattle, Washington, University of Washington: 127.
Benda, L. E. (1990). "The influence of debris flows on channels and valley floors in the Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 15: 457-466.
Benda, L. E. (1991). "Predicting downstream impacts from slope failures."
Benda, L. E., and T. Dunne (1997). "Stochastic forcing of sediment routing and storage in channel networks." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2865-2880.
Benda, L. E. (1999). Science vs. Reality: The Scale Crisis in the Watershed Sciences. Annual Wildland Hydrology Conference, Bozeman, Montana.
Benda, L. E. (?). The Role of Science in Resolving Environmental Conflicts: Recent Failures Point to the Next Step - Ecological Risk Assessment. Seattle, Washington, Earth Systems Institute.
Benda, L. E. (?). Watershed Analysis: A Sound Idea Limited by Poor Formulations and the Opportunity of NMFS to Correct the Problem. Seattle, Washington, Earth Systems Institute: 4.
Benda, L. E. (?). Watershed Analysis: How Good is the Science? Seatle, Washington.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2004). "Confluence effects in rivers: Interactions of basin scale, network geometry, and disturbance regimes." Water Resources Research 40: W05402.
Benda, L. E., et al. (1992). "Morphology and evolution of salmonid habitats in a recently deglaciated river basin, Washington State, U.S.A." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(6): 1246-1256.
Benda, L. E., et al. (1992). "Morphology and evolution of salmonid habitats in a recently deglaciated river basin, Washington state, USA." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 49: 1246-1256.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2002). "Recruitment of wood to streams in old-growth and second-growth redwood forests, northern California, U.S.A." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 32: 1460-1477.
Benda, L. E. and T. W. Cundy (1990). "Predicting deposition of debris flows in mountain channels." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 27: 409-417.
Benda, L. E. and T. Dunne (1987). "Sediment routing by debris flow." International Association of Hydrological Sciences 165: 213-223.
Benda, L. E. and T. Dunne (1997). "Stochastic forcing of sediment routing and storage in channel networks." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2865-2880.
Benda, L. E. and T. Dunne (1997). "Stochastic forcing of sediment supply to channel networks from landsliding and debris flow." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2849-2863.
Benda, L. E. and T. Dunne (1997). "Stochiastic forcing of sediment routing and storage in channel networks." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2865-2880.
Benda, L. E., et al. (1987). Influences of forest management on channel environments in the Oregon Coast Range. Oregon Riparian Symposium.
Benda, L. E. and D. J. Miller (2001). "Beyond Arm Waving: Thinking Critically at Large Scales." Watershed Management Council Networker 10(1): 1, 4-16.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2011). "Creating a catchment scale perspective for river restoration." Hydrology and Earth System Science 15.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2003). "Effects of post-wildfire erosion on channel environments, Boise River, Idaho." Forest Ecology and Management 178: 105-119.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2003). "Effects of post-wildlife erosion on channel environments Boise River, Idaho." Forest Ecology and Management 178: 105-119.
Benda, L. E., et al. (1999). "Fires and geomorphology in mountain drainage basins; theoretical predictions and field observations." Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 31(7): 313.
The ubiquitous occurrence of charcoal in lake core sediments, landslide sites, debris flow deposits, alluvial terraces, and spatial patterns of forest vegetation suggest how fires are linked to geomorphology in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The empirical record, however compelling, is presently too fragmentary to deduce general principles on the role of fires in geomorphic regimes. A stochastic simulation model of erosion and sedimentation, built upon slope stability and sediment transport theories, and on empirical studies of more complicated processes including fire behavior and debris flows, was developed for the Oregon Coast Range and for the southern Cascades of Washington. In these terrains, fires are predicted to result in a punctuated supply of sediment and wood by landslides and debris flows, a pattern circumscribed by the size and frequency of fires, the number of erosion source areas, soil production rates, and the geometry of the low-order channel network. In higher-order channel networks, fires can influence the spectra of sediment flux and storage depending on basin scale, particle attrition rates, sediment transport rates, and on availability of sediment storage reservoirs on the valley floor. Periodic erosion and sedimentation can influence the spatial distribution and volume of boulders and alluvium in channels, patterns that are documented in field studies. Fire-induced erosion can also lead to the genesis of fans and terraces. Variations in topography, lithology, and in fire regimes across mountainous regions of North America can be expected to result in different spatial and temporal patterns of punctuated erosion and sedimentation. Fire-related disturbance regimes can be studied through a combination of field studies and theory development.
 
Benda, L. E., et al. (1998). Dynamic Landscape Systems. River Ecology and Management. R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby. New York, Springer-Verlag: 261-288.
Benda, L. E., et al. (1998). Analysis of Natural Disturbance Murray Pacific Tree Farm: Consequences for Environmental Assessment and Forest Management. Seattle, Washington, Earth Systems Institute: 1-50.
Benda, L. E. and L. R. Miller (1991). Geomorphical Watershed Analysis: A Conceptual Framework and Review of Techniques. Seattle, Washington, Department of Geological Sciences: Mountain Drainage Basin Geomorphology Group: 54.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2004). "The network dynamics hypothesis: how channel networks structure riverine habitats." BioScience 54(5): 413-427.
Hierarchical and branching river networks interact with dynamic watershed disturbances, such as fires, storms, and floods, to impose a spatial and
temporal organization on the nonuniform distribution of riverine habitats, with consequences for biological diversity and productivity. Abrupt
changes in water and sediment flux occur at channel confluences in river networks and trigger changes in channel and floodplain morphology. This
observation, when taken in the context of a river network as a population of channels and their confluences, allows the development of testable predictions
about how basin size, basin shape, drainage density, and network geometry interact to regulate the spatial distribution of physical diversity
in channel and riparian attributes throughout a river basin. The spatial structure of river networks also regulates how stochastic watershed disturbances
influence the morphology and ages of fluvial features found at confluences.
 
Benda, L. E., et al. (2002). "How to avoid train wrecks when using science in environmental problem solving." BioScience 52(12): 1127-1136.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2002). "How to Avoid Train Wrecks When Using Science in Environmental Problem Solving." BioScience 52(12): 1127-1136.
Benda, L. E. and J. C. Sias (1998). Landscape Controls on Wood Abundance in Streams. Seattle, WA, Earth Systems Institute: 59.
Benda, L. E. and J. C. Sias (2003). "A quantitative framework for evaluating the mass balance of in-stream organic debris." Forest Ecology and Management 172: 1-6.
Benda, L. E., et al. (1988). Report of the I. D. Team: Investigation of the Hazel Landslide of the North Fork of the Stillaguamish River: 1-12.
Benda, L. E., et al. (2003). "Debris flows as agents of morphological heterogeneity at low-order confluences, Olympic Mountains, Washington." Geological Society of America Bulletin 115(9): 1110-1121.
Benda, L. E. and W. Zhang (1990). Accounting for the stochiastic occurrence of landslides when predicting sediment yields. Research Needs and Applications to Reduce Erosion and Sedimentation in Tropical Steeplands, Fiji.
Benke, A. C. (2001). "Importance of flood regime to invertebrate habitat in an unregulated river-floodplain ecosystem " Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20(2): 225-240.
Benke, A. C., et al. (2000). "Flood pulse dynamics of an unregulated river floodplain in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain." Ecology 81(10): 2730-2741.
Benner, P. A., et al. (1988). From the Forest to the Sea: A Story of Fallen Trees. Portland, Oregon, U.S. Forest Service: 154.
Benner, P. A. and J. R. Sedell (1987). Chronic Reduction of Large Woody Debris on Beaches at Oregon River Mouths. Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems of the American West: 8th Annual Meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Seattle, Washington.
Bennet, J. P. (1974). "Concepts of mathematical modelling of sediment yield." Water Resources Research 10: 485-493.
Bennett, D. A., M.P.Armstrong, and G.A.Wade (1999). "Exploring the solution space of semi-structured geographical problems using genetic algorithms." Transactions in GIS 3(1): 51-71.
Bent, G. C. and P. A. Steeves (2006). "A revised logistic regression equation and an automated procedure for mapping the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5031." 107.
A Revised Logistic Regression Equation and an Automated Procedure for Mapping the Probability of a Stream Flowing Perennially in Massachusetts
By Gardner C. Bent and Peter A. Steeves
A revised logistic regression equation and an automated procedure were developed for mapping the probability of a stream flowing perennially in Massachusetts. The equation provides city and town conservation commissions and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection a method for assessing whether streams are intermittent or perennial at a specific site in Massachusetts by estimating the probability of a stream flowing perennially at that site. This information could assist the environmental agencies who administer the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act of 1996, which establishes a 200-foot-wide protected riverfront area extending from the mean annual high-water line along each side of a perennial stream, with exceptions for some urban areas. The equation was developed by relating the observed intermittent or perennial status of a stream site to selected basin characteristics of naturally flowing streams (defined as having no regulation by dams, surface-water withdrawals, ground-water withdrawals, diversion, wastewater discharge, and so forth) in Massachusetts. This revised equation differs from the equation developed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study in that it is solely based on visual observations of the intermittent or perennial status of stream sites across Massachusetts and on the evaluation of several additional basin and land-use characteristics as potential explanatory variables in the logistic regression analysis. The revised equation estimated more accurately the intermittent or perennial status of the observed stream sites than the equation from the previous study.
Stream sites used in the analysis were identified as intermittent or perennial based on visual observation during low-flow periods from late July through early September 2001. The database of intermittent and perennial streams included a total of 351 naturally flowing (no regulation) sites, of which 85 were observed to be intermittent and 266 perennial. Stream sites included in the database had drainage areas that ranged from 0.04 to 10.96 square miles. Of the 66 stream sites with drainage areas greater than 2.00 square miles, 2 sites were intermittent and 64 sites were perennial. Thus, stream sites with drainage areas greater than 2.00 square miles were assumed to flow perennially, and the database used to develop the logistic regression equation included only those stream sites with drainage areas less than 2.00 square miles. The database for the equation included 285 stream sites that had drainage areas less than 2.00 square miles, of which 83 sites were intermittent and 202 sites were perennial.
Results of the logistic regression analysis indicate that the probability of a stream flowing perennially at a specific site in Massachusetts can be estimated as a function of four explanatory variables: (1) drainage area (natural logarithm), (2) areal percentage of sand and gravel deposits, (3) areal percentage of forest land, and (4) region of the state (eastern region or western region). Although the equation provides an objective means of determining the probability of a stream flowing perennially at a specific site, the reliability of the equation is constrained by the data used in its development. The equation is not recommended for (1) losing stream reaches or (2) streams whose ground-water contributing areas do not coincide with their surface-water drainage areas, such as many streams draining the Southeast Coastal Region-the southern part of the South Coastal Basin, the eastern part of the Buzzards Bay Basin, and the entire area of the Cape Cod and the Islands Basins. If the equation were used on a regulated stream site, the estimated intermittent or perennial status would reflect the natural flow conditions for that site.
An automated mapping procedure was developed to determine the intermittent or perennial status of stream sites along reaches throughout a basin. The procedure delineates the drainage area boundaries, determines values for the four explanatory variables, and solves the equation for estimating the probability of a stream flowing perennially at two locations on a headwater (first-order) stream reach-one near its confluence or end point and one near its headwaters or start point. The automated procedure then determines the intermittent or perennial status of the reach on the basis of the calculated probability values and a probability cutpoint (a stream is considered to flow perennially at a cutpoint of 0.56 or greater for this study) for the two locations or continues to loop upstream or downstream between locations less than and greater than the cutpoint of 0.56 to determine the transition point from an
intermittent to a perennial stream. If the first-order stream reach is determined to be intermittent, the procedure moves to the next downstream reach and repeats the same process. The automated procedure then moves to the next first-order stream and repeats the process until the entire basin is mapped.
A map of the intermittent and perennial stream reaches in the Shawsheen River Basin is provided on a CD-ROM that accompanies this report. The CD-ROM also contains ArcReader 9.0, a freeware product, that allows a user to zoom in and out, set a scale, pan, turn on and off map layers (such as a USGS topographic map), and print a map of the stream site with a scale bar. Maps of the intermittent and perennial stream reaches in Massachusetts will provide city and town conservation commissions and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection with an additional method for assessing the intermittent or perennial status of stream sites.
 
Berelson, W. L., et al. (2004). "Mapping hydrologic units for the national Watershed Boundary Dataset." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40(5): 1231-1246.
ABSTRACT: In 2002, Wyoming became the first state to complete
development of a statewide 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary
Dataset (WBD) under the new Federal Standards for Delineation
of Hydrologic Unit Boundaries. The product was developed through
the coordinated efforts of numerous state, federal, and local entities
both within Wyoming and in neighboring states. Development of a
comprehensive, standardized hydrologic unit boundary dataset in a
“headwaters” state such as Wyoming poses a number of unique
challenges. This paper details the WBD’s development in Wyoming,
highlighting technical methodology development and interagency
coordination strategies. Evolution of the WBD standard is
reviewed, addressing inconsistencies between definitions for hydrologic
units and “true” watershed delineations. While automated
methods are improving, manual and semi-automated techniques
continue to serve as valuable approaches to hydrologic unit boundary
delineation given the quality of digital terrain models and the
multijurisdictional nature of watershed based management. This
case study provides insight on future development and maintenance
of the WBD within and across other states and regions of the
country and on opportunities for linking the WBD to related water
resource geospatial data products like the National Hydrography
Dataset.
 
Berg, D. R. (1995). "Riparian silvicultural system design and assessment in the Pacific Northwest Cascade Mountains, USA." Ecological Applications 5(1): 87-96.
Berg, N., et al. (1998). "Function and dynamics of woody debris in stream reaches in the central Sierra Nevada, California." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 1807-1820.
Berger, A. M. and R. E. Gresswell (2009). "Factors influencing coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) seasonal survival rates: a spatially continuous approach within stream networks." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 66: 613-632.
Mark–recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus
clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (‡100 mm, fork length) were individually
marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial
(stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic
(discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance)
factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn
(16 September – 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream
discharge. In addition, relatively low (–) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (–), and boulder cover (+) were
weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds,
and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of
watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.
 
Berghe, E. P. v. d. and M. R. Gross (1984). "Female Size and Nest Depth in Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) " Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41: 204-206.
Berghe, E. P. v. d. and M. R. Gross (1989). "Natural Selection Resulting From Female Breeding Competition in a Pacific Salmon (Coho: Oncorhynchus Kistuch) " Evolution 43(1): 125-140.
Bergstedt, L. C. and E. P. Bergersen (1997). "Health and movements of fish in response to sediment sluicing in the Wind River, Wyoming." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 312-319.
Bergstrom, F. W. and S. A. Schumm (1981). Episodic behaviour in badlands. Erosion and Sediment Transport in Pacific Rim Steeplands, I.A.H.S.: 478-493.
Berris, S. N. and D. R. Harr (1987). "Comparative Snow Accumulation and Melt During Rainfall in Forested and Clear-cut Plots in the Western Cascades of Oregon." Water Resources Research 23(1): 135-142.
Berry, J. D. and J. R. Maxwell (1981). Land systems inventory for the Pacific Northwest Region and the Siuslaw National Forest. Corvallis, OR, Siuslaw National Forest: 22.
Bertolo, P. and F. Wieczorek (2005). "Calibration of numerical models for small debris flows in Yosemite Valley, California, USA." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 5: 993-1001.
This study compares documented debris flow
runout distances with numerical simulations in the Yosemite
Valley of California, USA, where about 15% of historical
events of slope instability can be classified as debris flows
and debris slides (Wieczorek and Snyder, 2004).
To model debris flows in the Yosemite Valley, we selected
six streams with evidence of historical debris flows; three of
the debris flow deposits have single channels, and the other
three split their pattern in the fan area into two or more channels.
From field observations all of the debris flows involved
coarse material, with only very small clay content.
We applied the one dimensional DAN (Dynamic ANalysis)
model (Hungr, 1995) and the two-dimensional FLO-
2D model (O’Brien et al., 1993) to predict and compare the
runout distance and the velocity of the debris flows observed
in the study area. As a first step, we calibrated the parameters
for the two softwares through the back analysis of three
debris- flows channels using a trial-and-error procedure starting
with values suggested in the literature. In the second step
we applied the selected values to the other channels, in order
to evaluate their predictive capabilities.
After parameter calibration using three debris flows we obtained
results similar to field observationsWe also obtained a
good agreement between the two models for velocities. Both
models are strongly influenced by topography: we used the
30m cell size DTM available for the study area, that is probably
not accurate enough for a highly detailed analysis, but it
can be sufficient for a first screening.
 
Beschta, B. (1997). "Riparian shade and stream temperature." Rangelands 19(2): 25-28.
Beschta, R. L. (1978). "Long-term Patterns of Sediment Production Following Road Construction and Logging in the Oregon Coast Range." Water Resources Research 14(6): 1011-1016.
Beschta, R. L. (1978). "Long-term patterns of sediment production following road construction and logging in the Oregon Coastal Range." Water Resources Research 14(6): 1011-1016.
Suspended sediment production after road construction, logging and slash disposal was significantly increased (p=0.95) on two watersheds in Oregon's Coast Range. A 25% patch cut watershed showed increases during 3-8 posttreatment years. these increases were caused primarily by mass soil erosion from roads. Monthly sediment concentrations before the occurrence of the annual peak  flow were increased more than those following the annual peak. Surface erosion from a severe slash burnwas the primary cause of increased sediment yields for 5 post treatment years on a watershed that was 82% cleacut. Monthly sediment concentrations were generally increased throughout the winter runoff period on this watershed.  The flushing of suspended sediment in Oregon Coast Range watersheds is apparent from seasonal changes of suspended sediment rating curves.
 
Beschta, R. L. (1981). Patterns of sediment and organic-matter transport in Oregon Coast Range streams. Symposium on Erosion and Sediment Transport in Pacific Rim Steeplands, IAHS. 132: 179-188.
Beschta, R. L. (1983). The effects of large organic debris upon channel morphology: a flume study. Symposium on Erosion and Sedimentation, Simons, Li and Associates, Fort Collins, CO.
Beschta, R. L. (1984). River Channel Response to Accelerated Mass Soil Erosion. Symposium on the Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Beschta, R. L. (1984). River channel response to acclerated mass soil erosion. Proceedings, Symposium on Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability. Honolulu, East-West Center: 155-164.
Beschta, R. L. (1984). River channel responses to accelerated mass soil erosion. Symposium on Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability. Honolulu, Hawaii.
Long-term channel adjustments to accelerated hillslope erosion were evaluated from aerial photographs for two river systems (i.e., the Middle fork Willamette River, USA, and the Kowai River, NZ) which drain steep mountainous terrain. Hillslope erosion rates in both basins have been altered by landuse practices and the occurrence of an extremely large flow event (recurrence interval > 100 years). Results indicate that active channel width is a sensitive indicator of channel aggradation, channel adjustments are most pronounced at or immediately downstream of sediment inputs, and channel changes caused by sediment inputs are relatively persistent. Sediment, and not peak flow per se, caused the most pronounced changes in channel characteristics.
 
Beschta, R. L. (1998). "Forest Hydrology in the Pacific Northwest: Additional Research Notes." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 34(4): 729-741.
Beschta, R. L. and W. L. Jackson (1979). "The Intrusion of Fine Sediments into a Stable Gravel Bed." Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36(2): 204-210.
Beschta, R. L. and A. R. Orme (1990). Upper Stiltner Creek, Lewis County, Washington. D. D. Zender.
Beschta, R. L. and W. S. Platts (1986). "Morphological Features of Small Streams: Signifigance and Function." Water Resources Bulletin 22(3): 369-379.
Beschta, R. L. and W. J. Ripple (2008). "Wolves, trophic cascades, and rivers in the Olympic National Park, USA." Ecohydrology 1: 118-130.
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) were extirpated in the early 1900s from the Olympic Peninsula of northwestern Washington.
Thus, we studied potential cascading effects of wolf removal by undertaking a retrospective study of Roosevelt elk (Cervus
elaphus) populations, riparian forests, and river channel morphology. For three riparian sites within the western portion of
Olympic National Park, the age structure of black cottonwood and bigleaf maple indicated a pattern of significantly decreased
recruitment (growth of seedlings/sprouts into tall saplings and trees) associated with intensive elk browsing in the decades
following the loss of wolves. At a riparian site outside the park, which represented a refugium from elk browsing, cottonwood
recruitment has been ongoing during the 20th century, indicating that climate and flow regimes, in the absence of intensive
herbivory, have not limited the establishment and growth of this deciduous woody species. Using 1994 orthophotos, we also
measured channel dimensions and planform morphology of 8-km-long river reaches at each vegetation sampling site and an
additional reach outside the park. Channels inside the park versus those outside the park had greater percent braiding (37 vs
2%) and larger ratios of active channel width/wetted width (3Ð0 vs 1Ð5 m/m). Results for western Olympic National Park were
consistent with a truncated trophic cascade hypothesis whereby ungulate browsing following the extirpation of wolves caused
significant long-term impacts to riparian plant communities which, in turn, allowed increased riverbank erosion and channel
widening to occur.
 
Besctha, J. L., et al. (1987). Stream temperature and aquatic habitat. Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, Institute of Forest Resour4ces.
Best, J. L. (1986). "The morphology of river channel confluences." Progress in Physical Geography 10: 157-174.
Best, J. L. (1986). "Sediment transport and bed morphology at river channel confluences." Sedimentology 35(481-498).
Best, J. L. (1988). "Sediment transport and bed morphology at river channel confluences." Sedimentology 35: 481-498.
Bettinger, P. and M. Lennette (2004). LAndscape Management Policy Simulator (LAMPS) Version 1.1, User Guide. Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University.
Bettinger, P., et al. (2005). "A hierarchical spatial framework for forest landscape planning." Ecological Modeling 182: 25-48.
A hierarchical spatial framework for large-scale, long-term forest landscape planning is presented along with example policy
analyses for a 560,000 ha area of the Oregon Coast Range. The modeling framework suggests utilizing the detail provided by
satellite imagery to track forest vegetation condition and for representation of fine-scale features, such as riparian areas. Spatial
data are then aggregated up to management units, where forest management decisions are simulated. Management units may also
be aggregated into harvest blocks to closer emulate management behavior. Land allocations, subdivisions of landowner groups,
can be used to represent different levels of management. A management unit may contain multiple land allocations, such as
riparian management emphases that vary based on distance from the stream system. The management emphasis required by each
land allocation is retained in the simulation of policies. When applied within a large-scale forest landscape planning context, the
implications of policies that suggest clearcut size restrictions, minimum harvest ages, or the development of interior habitat areas
can be assessed. Simulations indicated that the minimum harvest age constraint has a stronger influence on even-flow harvest
levels than do maximum clearcut size or interior habitat area constraints. Even-flow timber harvest level objectives, however,
also have an effect on the results: time periods beyond the constraining time period show a build-up of timber inventory, which
suggests a possible relaxation or modification of the objective in order to achieve average harvest ages that are closer to the
minimum harvest age.
 
Beuselinck, L., et al. (2002). "The influence of rainfall on sediment transport by overland flow over areas of net deposition." Journal of Hydrology 257(1-4): 145-163.
Beuselinck, L., et al. (1999). "Evaluation of the simple settling theory for predicting sediment deposition by overland flow." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 24(11): 993-1007.
Beven, K. (1981). The effect of ordering on the geomorphic effectiveness of hydrologic events. Erosion and Sediment Transport in Pacific Rim Steeplands. Christchurch, I.A.H.S. Publication Number 132.
Beven, K. (1987). "Towards the Use of Catchment Geomorphology in Flood Frequency Predictions." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 12: 69-82.
Beven, K. J. (1993). "Prophecy, reality and uncertainty in distributed hydrological modeling." Advances in Water Resources 16: 41-51.
Beven, K. J. (2001). "How far can we go in distributed hydrological modelling." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 5(1): 1-12.
Beven, K. J. (2002). "Towards a coherent philosophy for modelling the environment." Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, A 458: 1-20.
Beven, K. J. (2002). "Towards an alternative blueprint for a physically based digitally simulated hydrologic response modelling system." Hydrological Processes 16: 189-206.
Beven, K. J. (2005). "A manifesto for the equifinality thesis." Journal of Hydrology xx: 1-19.
Beven, K. J., et al. (1988). "On Hydrological Heterogeneity - Catchment Morphology and Catchment Response." Journal of Hydrology 100: 353-375.
Beverage, J. P. and J. K. Culbertson (1964). "Hyperconcentrations of Suspended Sediment." Journal of the Hydraulics Division 6: 117-128.
Bevers, M., et al. (1996). "Spatially optimizing forest management schedules to meet stormflow constraints." Water Resources Bulletin 32(5): 1007-1015.
A spatial optimization model is developed and used to limit cumulative effects resulting from storm events by strategically arranging and scheduling forest treatments to meet peak storm-flow constraints. A mixed integer forest management scheduling formulation is used to select the location and timing of forest treatments. The approach includes simulated spatial routing of storm-flows imbedded as hydrologic process constraints (in a nested schedule) within longer-term forest management planning periods in the mathematical programming model. Although difficult to solve, the model shows promise for further research.
 
Bevin, K. (1981). "Kinematic subsurface stormflow." Water Resources Research 17(5): 1419-1424.
Bevin, K. (1982). "On subsurface stormflow: predictions with simple kinematic theory for saturated and unsaturated flows." Water Resources Research 18(6): 1627-1633.
Bevington, P. R. (1969). Data Reduction and Error analysis for the Physical Sciences. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Bigelow, P., et al. (2007). "On debris flows, river networks, and the spatial structure of channel morphology." Forest Science 52(2): 220-238.
Bigelow, P., et al. (2001). Bolinas Lagoon Watershed Study Input Sediment Budget San Francisco, California, Prepared by Tetra Tech, Inc. for US Army Corps of Engineers: 77.
Bigelow, P. E., et al. (2007). "On debris flows, river networks, and the spatial structure of channel morphology." Forest Science 53(2): 220-238.
We evaluated the morphological effects of debris flows from headwater streams in larger, fish-bearing channels of the central Oregon Coast Range, including their influence on fans, wood recruitment, and channel morphology. Continuous channel surveys (6.4 km) were conducted in third- through fifth-order streams (drainage area <10 km2 and slope <7%) where debris fan effects at confluences were most evident. This basin size contains the majority of channels (67%) in the central Coast Range with gradients that are used by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum). The close spacing between headwater tributaries susceptible to debris flows (118 m average) resulted in long continuous sections of fish-bearing streams that were bordered by debris fans (103 m average) and debris fans impinging on 54% of the total channel length surveyed. Debris flows also supplied the majority of wood (58% of pieces) to the surveyed fish-bearing channels. The highest values of large wood, boulders, and channel gradients were associated with debris fans at confluences with headwater tributaries, while deeper sediment deposits were often associated with fans but also extended up and downstream from fans. The spacing and network pattern of debris flow-prone headwater tributaries influenced the spatial structure of channel morphology and aquatic habitats leading to a high degree of physical heterogeneity and patchiness in channel environments. Our study contributes to a growing emphasis on the role of tributary confluences in structuring channel morphology and aquatic habitats in mountain drainage basins and argues for including a confluence component to stream classification and habitat typing schemes
 
Bilby, R. E. (1981). "Role of organic debris dams in regulating the export of dissolved and particulate matter from a watershed." Ecology 62: 1234-1243.
Bilby, R. E. (1984). "Removal of Woody Debris May Affect Stream Channel Stability." Journal of Forestry 82(10): 609-612.
Bilby, R. E. (1985). "Contributions of Road Surface Sediment to a Western Washington Stream." Forest Science 31(4): 827-838.
Bilby, R. E., K. Sullivan, and S.H. Duncan (1989). "The generation and fate of road-surface sediment in forested watersheds in southwestern Washington." Forest Science 35(2): 453-468.
Bilby, R. E. and P. A. Bisson (1998). Function and Distribution of Large Woody Debris. River Ecology and management. Lessons from the Pacific Coastal Ecoregion. R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby. New York, Springer: 324-346.
Bilby, R. E. and P. A. Bisson (2004). Function and Distribution of Large Woody Debris. River Ecology and Management. R. J. Naiman and R. E. Bilby. New York, Springer: 324-346.
Bilby, R. E., et al. (1996). "Incorporation of nitrogen and carbon from spawning coho salmon into the trophic system of small streams: evidence from stable isotopes." Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53: 164-173.
Bilby, R. E., et al. (1999). "Effects of immersion in water on deterioration of wood from five species of trees used for habitat enhancement projects." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19: 687-695.
Logs of standard dimensions from five species of trees were submerged in a stream
to evaluate changes in strength and decomposition over a period of 5 years. Changes in structural
properties occurred only for wood near the outer surface of the logs. Nearly all bark was removed
from the logs within 12 months. Diameter loss for the five species ranged from 10.6 mm (western
hemlock Tsuga heterophylla) to 21.8 mm (bigleaf maple Acer macrophyllum) after 5 years. De-creases
in the density of surface wood for the five species ranged from 23% (red alder Alnus rubra)
to 31% (western hemlock). Modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and wood density did not
change for wood more than 12 mm from the log surface for any of the species. Bigleaf maple
exhibited the highest resistance to rupture, and western redcedar Thuja plicata exhibited the lowest.
Western redcedar was also the most easily flexed. Microbial activity on the surface of the logs
was highest at the start of the experiment and decreased rapidly with time of immersion. The two
hardwood species (bigleaf maple and red alder) generally had higher levels of microbial activity
than the conifer species (Douglas fir Pseudotsuga menzesii, western hemlock, western redcedar)
from 12 months through 60 months of immersion. Differences in the rate of decomposition between
conifer and hardwood logs were much less than in terrestrial environments. Our results suggest
that hardwood logs can be used in stream enhancement projects where the wood will be submerged.
 
Bilby, R. E., et al. (?). "Effects of Stream Submersion on Deterioration of Wood from Five Tree Species: Implications for Habitat Enhancement Projects (DRAFT)."
Bilby, R. E. and G. E. Likens (1980). "Importance of organic debris jams in the structure and function of stream ecosystems." Ecology 61: 1107-1113.
Bilby, R. E. and L. A. Mollot (2008). "Effect of changing land use patterns on the distribution of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Puget Sound region." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 65: 2138-2148.
Population increase in the Pacific Northwest of North America over the last century has led to the removal of
forests for various purposes. Evidence of salmon response to these alterations in land use is rare owing to a scarcity of
fish population data and a high degree of interannual variation in abundance. We examined the relationship between the
spatial distribution of spawning coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and changes in land use from 1984 through 2001 at
84 sites in four rivers draining into northern Puget Sound. Changes in land use over this period were determined from
LandSat imagery, county zoning designations, and aerial photographs. Substantial reduction in forest cover occurred in
many of the index watersheds during this time. The proportion of salmon using sites subjected to increased urban land use
over the study period declined about 75%. Increases were observed at forested sites and those with increased rural residential
use. Maintaining salmon populations in rapidly developing areas may require the identification and protection of sites
that support large salmon populations and steering development to areas supporting few fish.
 
 
Bilby, R. E., et al. (2003). Sources of variability in aquatic ecosystems: factors controlling biotic production and diversity. Strategies for Restoring River Ecosystems: Sources of Variability and Uncertainty in Natural and Managed Systems. R. C. Wissmar and P. A. Bisson. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society: 129-146.
Bilby, R. E. and J. W. Ward (1989). "Changes in characteristics and function of woody debris with increasing size of streams in Western Washington." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118: 368-378.
Bingner, R. L. (1996). "Runoff simulated from Goodwin Creek watershed using SWAT." Transactions of the ASAE 39(1): 85-90.
Binkley, D., and L.H. MacDonald (1994). Forests as nonpoint sources of pollution and effectiveness of best management practices. NCASI Technical Bulletin No. 672. NY.: 57p.
Birkeland, P. W. (1990). "Soil-geomorphic research  - a selective overview." Geomorphology 3: 207-224.
Birkeland, P. W., et al. (1991). Soils as a tool for applied quaternary geology, Utah Department of Natural Resources: 63.
Bisaillon, J.-F., et al. (2007). Effect of winter harshness on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) egg to fry (0+) and fry to parr (1+) over-winter mortality. 14th Workshop on the Hydraulics of Ice Covered Rivers. Quebec City, CGU HS Committee on River Ice Processes and the Environment: 7.
Although winter mortality has long been regarded as a major factor affecting salmonid
production in cold-region rivers, only few studies have explored the impact of winter
harshness on salmonid mortality. In this study, we conducted an analysis of juvenile
Atlantic salmon egg to fry (0+) and fry to parr (1+) over-winter mortality in relation to
various hydro-climatic variables. We analysed the egg and fish abundances data
collected between 1983 and 1992 on the Trinité River (Québec, Canada) by the Société
de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec (FAPAQ, Québec). The results indicate that egg to
fry over-winter mortality was high (min 83%, max 93%) but inversely related to winter
coldness as defined by the cumulated freezing degree-days between October 1st and
January 31st (r2 = 0,81, p < 0,001) and positively related to winter low discharge as
defined by the ratio of November to February mean discharges (r2 = 0,80, p < 0,001).
Fry to parr overwinter mortality ranged from 42% to 73% between years and was
inversely related to winter coldness (cumulated freezing-degree days in January and
February) (r2 = 0,91, p < 0,0001) and positively related to conditions conducive to frazil
and anchor ice formation in early winter (number of days in November with mean air
temperature below –10oC) (r2 = 0,77, p < 0,01). These results are discussed in relation
with other similar studies conducted on the Indian River, New Foundland (Chadwick,
1982) and Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick (Cunjak and Therrien, 1998).
 
Bischoff, J. L., et al. (1997). "Climatic Oscillations 10,000-155,000 yr B.P. at Owen's Lake, California Reflected in Glacial Rock Flour Abundance and Lake Salinity in Core OL-92." Quaternary Research 48: 313-325.
Bishop, A. W. (1955). "The use of the slip circle in the stability analysis of slopes." Geotechnique 5: 7-17.
Bishop, K. M. (1999). "Determination of translational landslide slip surface depth using balanced cross sections." Environmental & Engineering Geoscience 5(2): 147-156.
Bisson, P. A., J.M. Buffington, and D.R. Montgomery (2006). Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units. Methods in Stream Ecology, Elsevier.
Bisson, P. A., et al. (1987). Large Woody Debris in Forested Streams in the Pacific Northwest: Past, Present, and Future. Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions. E. O. Salo and T. W. Cundy. Seattle, Washington: 143-190.
Bisson, P. A., et al. (1987). Large woody debris in forested streams in the Pacific Northwest: past, present, future. Streamside Management: Forestry and Fisheries Interactions. University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Contribution 57. E. O. Salo and T. W. Cundy. Seattle, University of Washington: 143-190.
Bisson, P. A., et al. (2009). "Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific Salmon: habitat management based on natural variability." Ecology and Society 14(1): 45.
In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual
funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat
restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history
requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically
unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate
highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are
often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural
variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more
likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability
in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity
of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through
time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In
light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory
and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability.
 
Bisson, P. A. and D. R. Montgomery, Eds. (1996). Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units. Methods in Stream Ecology. San Diego, CA, Academic Press.
Bisson, P. A. and D. R. Montgomery (1996). Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units. Methods in Stream Ecology. F. R. Hauer and G. A. Lamberti, Academic Press, N.Y.: 23-52.
Bisson, P. A., et al. (1982). A system of naming habitat types in small streams, with examples of habitat utilization by salmonids during low streamflow. Aquisition and utilization of aquatic habitat inventory information. N. B. Armantrout. Portland, OR, Western Division, American Fisheries Socity: 62-73.
Bisson, P. A., et al. (1982). A system of naming habitat types in small streams, with examples of habitat utilization by salmonids during low streamflow. Aquisition and Utilization of Aquatic Habitat Inventory Information. N. B. Armantrout. Portland, OR, Western Division, American Fisheries Socity: 62-73.
Bisson, P. A., et al. (1988). "Summer Production of Coho Salmon Stocked in Mount St. Helens Streams 3-6 Years after the 1980 Eruption " Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117: 322-335.
Bisson, P. A., et al. (2003). "Fire and aquatic ecosystems of the western USA: current knowledge and key questions." Forest Ecology and Management 178: 213-229.
Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian ecosystems is an evolving field, with
many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of current knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue,
underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic ecosystem
conservation begins with recognizing that terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are linked and dynamic, and that fire can play a
critical role in maintaining aquatic ecological diversity. To protect aquatic ecosystems we argue that it will be important to: (1)
accommodate fire-related and other ecological processes that maintain aquatic habitats and biodiversity, and not simply control
fires or fuels; (2) prioritize projects according to risks and opportunities for fire control and the protection of aquatic ecosystems;
and (3) develop new consistency in the management and regulatory process. Ultimately, all natural resource management is
uncertain; the role of science is to apply experimental design and hypothesis testing to management applications that affect fire
and aquatic ecosystems. Policy-makers and the public will benefit from an expanded appreciation of fire ecology that enables
them to implement watershed management projects as experiments with hypothesized outcomes, adequate controls, and
replication.
 
 
Bisson, P. A. a. c.-a. (1999). Roads analysis:informing decisions about managing the National Forest Transportation System, United States Department of Agriculture
Forest Service: 1-222.
Bisson Peter, A. a. s. (1999). Roads Analysis: Informing Decisions About Managing the National Forest Transportaition System, US Forest Service: 1-222.
Bjonness, I.-M. (1983). "External Economic Dependency and Changing Human Adjustment to Marginal Environment in the High Himalaya, Nepal." Mountain Research and Development 3(3): 263-272.
Bjornn, T. C., et al. (1991). "Relation of Cover Alterations to the Summer Standing Crop of Young Salmonids in Small Southeast Alaska Streams." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120: 562-570.
Bjornn, T. C. and D. W. Reiser (1991). Habitat requirements of salmonids in streams. Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. W. R. Meehan. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society.
Blackwelder, E. (1928). "Mudflow as a geologic agent in semiarid mountains." Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 39: 465-484.
Blair, J. B., et al. (1999). "The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor: a medium-altitude, digitisation-only, airborne laser altimeter for mapping vegetation and topography." EPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 54: 115-122.
Blanchet, D. (1983). Evaluation of Recent Channel Changes on the Scott River. Anchorage, Alaska, US Forest Service: 18.
Blasing, T. J. and H. C. Fritts (1976). "Reconstructing Past Climatic Anomalies in the North Pacific and Western North America From Tree-ring Data." Quaternary Research 6: 563-579.
Bledsoe, B. P., M.C. Brown, and D. A. Raff (2007). "Geotools: a toolkit for fluvial systems analysis." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(3): 757-772.
Bledsoe, B. P. and C. C. Watson (2001). "Effects of urbanization on channel instability." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(2): 255-270.
Channel instability and aquatic ecosystem degradation have been linked to watershed imperviousness in humid regions of the U.S. In an effort to provide a more process-based linkage between observed thresholds of aquatic ecosystem degradation and urbanization, standard single event approaches (U.S. Geological Survey Flood Regression Equations and rational) and continuous hydrologic models (HSPF and CASC2D) were used to examine potential changes in flow regime associated with varying levels of watershed imperviousness. The predicted changes in flow parameters were then interpreted in concert with risk-based models of channel form and instability. Although low levels of imperviousness (10 to 20 percent) clearly have the potential to destabilize streams, changes in discharge, and thus stream power, associated with increased impervious area are highly variable and dependent upon watershed-specific conditions. In addition to the storage characteristics of the pre-development watershed, the magnitude of change is sensitive to the connectivity and conveyance of impervious areas as well as the specific characteristics of the receiving channels. Different stream types are likely to exhibit varying degrees and types of instability, depending on entrenchment, relative erodibility of bed and banks, riparian condition, mode of sediment transport (bedload versus suspended load), and proximity to geomorphic thresholds. Nonetheless, simple risk-based analyses of the potential impacts of land use change on aquatic ecosystems have the potential to redirect and improve the effectiveness of watershed management strategies by facilitating the identification of channels that may be most sensitive to changes in stream power.
 
Bledsoe, B. P. and C. C. Watson (2001). "Logistic analysis of channel pattern thresholds: meandering, braiding, and incising." Geomorphology 38(3-4): 281-300.
A large and geographically diverse data set consisting of meandering, braiding, incising, and post-incision equilibrium streams was used in conjunction with logistic regression analysis to develop a probabilistic approach to predicting thresholds of channel pattern and instability. An energy-based index was developed for estimating the risk of channel instability associated with specific stream power relative to sedimentary characteristics. The strong significance of the 74 statistical models examined suggests that logistic regression analysis is an appropriate and effective technique for associating basic hydraulic data with Various channel forms. The probabilistic diagrams resulting from these analyses depict a more realistic assessment of the uncertainty associated with previously identified thresholds of channel form and instability and provide a means of gauging channel sensitivity to changes in controlling variables. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Bledsoe, B. P., et al. (2002). "Quantification of incised channel evolution and equilibrium." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38(3): 861-870.
Incised channels are caused by an imbalance between sediment transport capacity and sediment supply that alters channel morphology through bed and bank erosion, Consistent sequential changes in incised channel morphology may be quantified and used to develop relationships describing quasi-equilibrium conditions in these channels. We analyzed the hydraulic characteristics of streams in the Yazoo River Basin, Mississippi in various stages of incised channel evolution. The hydraulic characteristics of incising channels were observed to follow the sequence predicted by previous conceptual models of incised channel response. Multiple regression models of stable slopes in quasi-equilibrium channels that have completed a full evolutionary sequence were developed, These models compare favorably with analytical solutions based on the extremal hypothesis of minimum stream power and empirical relationships from other regions. Appropriate application of these empirical relationships may be useful in preliminary design of stream rehabilitation strategies.
 
Bleeck, J. A., et al. (1993). "The 'Geology' of Papermaking." Washington Geology 21(3): 3-27.
Blöschl, G. and M. Sivapalan (1997). "Process controls on regional flood frequency: Coefficient of variation and basin scale." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2967-2980.
Board, W. F. P. (1997). Board Manual: Standard Methodology for Conducting Watershed Analysis. Olympia, Washington Department of Natural Resources.
Bodhaine, G. L. and D. M. Thomas (1964). Magnitude and frequency of floods in the U.S. Part 12. Pacific slope basins in Washington and Upper Columbia River basin, US Geological Survey: 1687.
Boer, D. H. (1992). "Hierarchies and spatial scale in process geomorphology: a review." Geomorphology 4: 303-318.
Boer, D. H. d. (4). "Hierarchies and spatial scale in process geomorphology: a review." Geomorphology 4: 303-318.
Boer, D. H. d. (1992). "Hierarchies and spatial scale in process geomorphology: a review." Geomorphology 4: 303-318.
Bogardi, J. J., et al. (1988). "Practical Generation of Synthetic Rainfall Event Time Series in a Semi-Arid Climatic Zone." Journal of Hydrology 103: 357-373.
Bogena, H. R., and B. Diekkruger (2002). "Modelling solute and sediment transport at different temporal and spatial scales." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27: 1475-1489.
A concept for continuous modeling of solute and sediment transport at the catchment scale is presented. the simulation is based on the application of the OPUS system model system, which is designed for long-term simulations of agricultural processes. As OPUS is a hillslope model, the catchment is discretized into numerous slopes. Modifications and enhancements of the OPUS model were made in order to simulate interflow induced by macropores. The simulation results are compared with measurements at different spatial and temporal scales of a meso-scale catchment used for drinking water supply. Five small subcatchments of 22 to 29 ha are used to validate the model at the local scale. The modified and validated model is then applied to the Wahnbach catchment with an area of 54km2. Simulations at the local and catchment scales are presented and compared with measurements. To model the long term behaviour of solute and sediment transport with a deterministic model, a complete set of climate and land use data is necessary. In this case study a method was developed to overcome the lack of data by using a weather generator. the long term simulations are validated by determining the mass of sediments trapped in the drinking water reservoir. The results confirm that the model concpet is applicable to a larger range of scales from single events to decades and from single slopes to meso-scale catchments. By using these methods it is conceivable to forecast simulations of the future solute and sediment tranport discharge using land use scenarios.
 
Bolstad, P. V., and W.T.Swank (1997). "Cumulative impacts of landuse on water quality in a southern Appalachian watershed." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33(3): 519-533.
Bond, N. (2004). "Spatial variation in fine seediment transport in small upland streams: the effect of flow regulation and catchment geology." River Research and Applications 20: 705-717.
Bonney, C. T. G. (1902). "Moraines and Mud-streams in the Alps." Geological Magazine 9(1): 8-17.
Bonniwell, E. C., et al. (1999). "Determining the times and distances of particle transit in a mountain streams using fallout radionuclides." Geomorphology 27: 75-92.
Booth, D. B., et al. (1991). Sediment transport along the South Fork and Mainstem of the Snoqualmie River. Seattle, Washington, King County Surface Water Management Division: 56.
Booth, D. B. and B. Hallet (1993). "Channel networks carved by subglacial water: observations and reconstruction in the eastern Puget Lowland of Washington." Geological Society of America Bulletin 105: 671-683.
Booth, D. B., et al. (2003). The geology of Puget Lowland Rivers. Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers. D. R. Montgomery, S. Bolton, D. B. Booth and L. Wall. Seattle, WA, University of Washington Press: 14-45.
Booth, D. E. (1991). "Estimating Prelogging Old-Growth in the Pacific Northwest." Journal of Forestry 89(10): 25-29.
Borah, D. K. (2002). Watershed-scale nonpoint source pollution models: mathematical bases. ASAE Annual Meeting / CIGR XVth World Congress Paper Number 022091, Chicago, Illinois, ASAE.
Borcard, D. "Partial r2, contribution and fraction[a]." UNPUBLISHED WEB NOTES.
Borden, R. K. and K. G. Troost (2001). Late Pleistocene Stratigraphy in the South-Central Puget Lowland, Pierce County, Washington, Washington State Department of Natural Resources: 1-33.
Borga, M., et al. (2002). "Assessment of shallow landsliding by using a physically based model of hillslope stability." Hydrological Processes 16(14): 2833-2851.
A model for the simulation of shallow landsliding triggered by heavy rainstorms is analysed and discussed. The model is applied in two mountainous catchments in the Dolomites (Eastern Italian Alps): the Cordon catchment (5 km2) and the Vauz catchment (1·9 km2), where field surveys provided a description of hydraulic and geotechnical properties of soils and an inventory of landslide scars is available. The stability mapping procedure, which is similar to that proposed by Montgomery and Dietrich (1994 Water Resources Research 30: 1153), combines steady-state hydrologic concepts with the infinite slope stability model. The model provides an estimate of the spatial distribution of the critical rainfall, which is the minimum steady-state rainfall predicted to cause instability. The comparison of the landslides observed in the study basins with model predictions shows that the distribution of critical rainfall obtained from the model provides a surrogate for failure initiation probability as a function of topographic location
 
Borga, M., et al. (2002). "Analysis of topographic and climatic control on rainfall-triggered shallow landsliding using a quasi-dynamic wetness index." Journal of Hydrology 268: 56-71.
Bormann, B. T., et al. (1995). "Rapid soil development after windthrow disturbance in pristine forests." Journal of Ecology 83: 747-757.
Bormann, F. H. and G. E. Likens (1979). "Catastrophic Disturbance and the Steady State in Northern Hardwood Forests." American Scientist 67: 660-669.
Bormann, F. H. and G. E. Likens (1979). Pattern and Processes in a Forested Ecosystem. New York, Springer-Verlag.
Bosch, D. D., R. G. Williams, S.P. Inamdar, J. M. Sheridan, R. R. Lowrance, and M.T. Teeng. (1998). Erosion and sediment transport through riparian forest buffers.
Bosch, J. M., and J.D. Hewlett (1982). "A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evapotranspiration." Journal of Hydrology 55: 3-23.
Bosscher, P. J., et al. (1988). Evaluation of Risks of Slope Instability Along a Coastal Reach. 5th International Symposium on Landslides, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Botkin, D., et al. (1994). Status and Future of Salmon of Western Oregon and Northern California: Findings and Options (DRAFT). Santa Barbara, California, The Center for the Study of the Environment: 74-113.
Botkin, D. B. (1990). Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the Twenty-First Century. New York, Oxford University Press.
Boughton, C. J., et al. (?). Stream and Ground-Water Monitoring Program, Lake Tahoe Basin, Nevada and California US Geological Survey: 1-6.
Bovis, Michael J. and M. Jakob (1999). "The role of debris supply conditions in predicting debris flow activity." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 24: 1039-1054.
Bowen, Z. H. and R. G. Waltermire (2002). "Evaluation of Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) for Measuring River Corridor Topography." Journal of American Water Resources Association 38(1): 33-41.
Bowles, J. E. (1986). Engineering properties of soils and their measurement. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Boychuk, D., et al. (1997). "Modelling the effect of spatial scale and correlated fire disturbances on forest age distribution." Ecological Modelling 95: 145-164.
Bozek, M. A. and M. K. Young (1994). "Fish mortality resulting from delayed effects of fire in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem." Great Basin Naturalist 54(1): 91-95.
Bracken, L., and J. Croke (2007). "The concept of hydrological connectivity and its contribution to understanding runoff-dominated geomorphic systems." Hydrologic Processes 21: 1749-1763.
Bracken, L. J., J. Croke, and M. Kirkby (2004). Connectivity in geomorphology: definition and evaluation. Geophysical Research Abstracts, European Geosciences Union, Volume 6, 04039.
Bradford, M. J. and J. R. Irvine (2000). "Land use, fishing, climate change, and the decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 57: 13-16.
We investigated a recent, major decline in the abundance of a large aggregate of coho salmon
(Oncorhynchus kisutch) spawning in the Thompson River, British Columbia, watershed. We found that the decline
could be attributed to a declining trend in productivity likely related to changing ocean conditions, overfishing, and
freshwater habitat alteration. Among individual watersheds, rates of decline in adult coho salmon abundance were correlated
with agricultural land use, road density, and a qualitative measure of stream habitat status but not with the proportion
of land recently logged. The recovery of these populations will require the prudent regulation of fishing, the
restoration of salmon producing watersheds, and an improvement in ocean conditions.
 
Bradley, J. B. and D. W. Reiser (?). Sedimentation and Fisheries Evaluation, Stikine area, Tongass National Forest. Carlsbad, CA, WEST Consultants, Inc.: 64.
Bradley, J. B. and P. J. Whiting (?). Draft-stream characterization and a stream classification for small streams. Seattle, Washington, submitted by WEST Consultats, submitted to the Washington Department of Natural Resources: 1-38.
Brady, L. M., F. Gray, C.A. Wissler, and D.P. Guertin (2001). Spatial Variability of sediment erosion processes using GIS analysis within watersheds in a historically mined region, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona. Open-File Report 01-267. Tucson, USGS, University of Arizona: 30.
A hillslope-scale erosion prediction model (USLE) and a spatially derived sediment delivery model (SEDMOD) are applied within a raster GIS to estimate erosion, sediment yield, and sediment deposition for five adjacent sub-basins impacted by historical mining in the Patagonia Mountains of southern Arizona. Geospatial landscape data (elevation, soil type, vegetation, mine locations, and stream networks) were divided into 30m2 cell grids, allowing for consistent high-resolution analysis within each watershed. The automation of paper soils maps is described. The model results identify non-point sources and sinks of trace-metal bearing sediment.
 
Bragg, D. C. (2000). "Simulating catastrophic and individualistic large woody debris recruitment for a small riparian system." Ecology 81(5): 1383-1394.
Surprisingly little research has been done to partition the contribution of
catastrophic disturbance from that of small-scale individualistic mortality events on riparian
large woody debris (LWD) recruitment. This study compared the impact of both processes
on recruitment through simulation of several catastrophic disturbances (a spruce beetle
outbreak, a moderately intense fire, and a clearcut) and undisturbed (individualistic mortality
only) old growth for a small headwater stream in the Intermountain West of the United
States. All scenarios progressed through a two-stage process, with the Forest Vegetation
Simulator growth and yield model controlling forest dynamics and a postprocessor (CWD,
version 1.2) predicting riparian LWD recruitment. Projections indicate that individualisticonly
conditions delivered 2.5 m3 LWD·100 m reach21·10-yr cycle21; while the spruce beetle-,
fire-, and clearcut-affected stands averaged 2.9, 3.2, and 1.5 m3 LWD·100 m reach21·cycle21,
respectively. Stands impacted by natural catastrophic disturbance significantly (P , 0.05)
increased cumulative (300 yr) LWD recruitment over the individualistic-only scenario,
whereas clear-cutting significantly decreased total delivery. In-stream LWD loads, relatively
stable in undisturbed riparian zones, fluctuated sharply under catastrophic disturbance. Peak
channel loads associated with natural perturbation occurred ;30 yr after the event while
debris volumes under clear-cutting immediately declined. The postevent recruitment and
in-stream LWD stocks of all disturbance scenarios eventually fell below undisturbed conditions,
requiring decades to recover historical volumes. Catastrophic disturbances induced
such steep oscillations in riparian LWD load that the systems experiencing frequent largescale
perturbations never achieved a long-term steady state, as some have postulated. Because
of the inflation in cumulative LWD delivery, it may prove advantageous to encourage
(or imitate) some catastrophic disturbance in forests along streams noticeably depauperate
of LWD.
 
Bragg, D. C., et al. (2000). Modeling Large Woody Debris Recruitment for Small Streams of the Central Rocky Mountains. Fort Collins, CO, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 36.
Bragg, D. C., et al. (2000). Modeling large woody debris recruitment for small streams of the central Rocky Mountains. Fort Collins, CO, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Rocky Mountain Research Station.
Brake, D. J., et al. (1999). Sediment delivery below roads in the Oregon Coast Range. Boise ID, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 18.
Bramblett, R. G., et al. (2002). "Seasonal use of small tributary and main-stem habitats by juvenile steelhead, coho salmon, and dolly varden in a southeastern Alaska drainage basin." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131: 498-506.
The movement of juvenile salmonids between small tributaries and main-stem habitats
in southeast Alaska watersheds is poorly understood. We observed movements of steelhead Oncorhynchus
mykiss, coho salmon O. kisutch, and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma between mainstem
and tributary habitats at weirs located on tributaries in the Staney Creek watershed in southeast
Alaska. We used seasonal relative abundance (catch per unit effort) in eight main-stem reaches
and eight tributaries to corroborate observed movement in the two streams with weirs.We observed
juvenile steelhead and coho salmon moving through the weirs into tributaries during the fall as
flows increased and temperatures decreased. The relative abundance of steelhead was greater in
main-stem sites than in tributaries during the summer, whereas during spring and fall relative
abundance in the tributaries was similar to that in the main stem. Juvenile coho salmon were
abundant in tributaries during all seasons. The relative abundance of Dolly Varden was greater in
the tributaries than in the main-stem during all seasons. These results underscore the significance
of links between main-stem habitats and small tributaries for production of juvenile salmonids.
 
Brandinoni, F. and M. A. Hassan (2006). "Glacial erosion, evolution of river long profiles, and the organization of process domains in mountain drainage basins in coastal British Columbia." Journal of Geophysical Research 3.
Brardinoni, F. (2001). Identification of Natural and Logging-Related Landslides in the Capilano River Basin (Coastal British Columbia): A Comparison Between Remotely Sensed Survey and Field Survey. Department of Geography. Vancouver, B.C., The University of British Columbia: 127.
Brardinoni, F. and M. Church (2004). "Representing the landslide magnitude-frequency relation: Capilano River Basin, British Columbia." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29: 115-124.
Brardinoni, F. and M. A. Hassan (2006). "Glacial erosion, evolution of river long profiles, and the organization of process domains in mountain drainage basins of coastal British Columbia." Journal of  Geophysical Research 111(F01013): 12.
In glaciated British Columbia, Canada, Quaternary climate changes are responsible
for profound spatial reorganization of Earth surface processes. These changes have left a
landscape characterized by topographic anisotropy associated with a hierarchy of
glacial troughs. The evolution of glaciated landscapes is examined by analyzing the
structure of geomorphic process domains and channel long profiles. To identify process
domains we use channel surveys and GIS analysis to construct slope-area transects of the
channel network. This analysis reveals generalized process-form disequilibrium with a
mismatch between topographic signatures and currently active geomorphic process
domains. At the landscape scale of ‘‘source’’ colluvial channels (contributing area
<1 km2), the glacial/paraglacial signature commonly overrides that produced by
contemporary debris flows. Along the axis of former ice flows, relict glacial cirques
introduce a ‘‘hanging’’ fluvial domain at contributing areas as small as 8   10 2 km2 and
produce complex channel long profiles similar to those observed for rivers responding
to tectonic forcing. Slope-area relations typical of unglaciated equilibrium environments
do not apply here. The concept of process domains appears to hold, however, some major
glacially forced modifications in the alluvial-colluvial transition are observed and the
definition of a depositional colluvial subdomain is proposed. Comparison between
field- and GIS-measured slopes reveals that GIS-associated error is not uniform between
process domains, and that GIS-based plots do not successfully discriminate field-based
process domains. The combination of glacial and post-glacial fingerprints and the
effects of ongoing Earth surface processes generate a complex landscape whose glacial
signatures may persist until the onset of the next ice age.
 
Brardinoni, F., et al. (2002). "Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia." Geomorphology 49: 109-124.
Brardinoni, F., et al. (2002). "Complex mass wasting response of drainage basins to forest management in coastal British Columbia." Geomorphology 49: 109-124.
The impacts of logging activities on mass wasting were examined in five watersheds in the coastal mountains of British
Columbia. Historical aerial photos were used to document mass wasting events, and their occurrence was related to logging
activities in the study basins. Logged and forested areas were compared in terms of mass wasting magnitude and frequency,
with reference to site characteristics. The recovery time of the landscape after logging was assessed. Bedrock type and basin
physiography had no identifiable effect on mass wasting frequency and magnitude. Mass wasting failure was primarily
controlled by slope gradient. Basin vulnerability increased, following clearcutting relative to forested areas, in that mass wasting
was initiated on gentler slopes. The volume of sediment produced from logged slopes is of the same order as that from forested
areas, which are steeper by as much as 10j. In both logged and forested areas, the size distribution of mass wasting events
follows an exponential distribution. However, the variability in mass wasting size in forested areas is much higher than that
obtained for logged areas. The recovery time after forest harvesting is over 20 years, which confirms published estimates based
on vegetation reestablishment. Continuous disturbance of the basin, however, may extend the recovery time for the whole basin
well beyond 20 years.
 
Brardinoni, F., et al. (2003). "Landslide inventory in a rugged forested watershed: a comparison between air-photo and field survey data." Geomorphology 54: 179-196.
Landslide inventories are routinely compiled by means of aerial photo interpretation (API). when examining photo pairs, the forest canopy (notably in old-growth forest) hides a population of "not visible" landslides. In the present study, we attempt to estimate how important is the contribution of landslides not detectable from aerial photographs to the global mass of sediment production from mass failures on forested terrain of the Capilano basin, coastal British Columbia. API was coupled with intensive fieldwork for identification and measurement of all landslides. A 30-year framework was adopted. We show that "not visible" landslides can represent up to 85% of the total number of failures and account for 30% of the volume of debris mobilised. Such percentages display high sub-basin variability with rates of sediment production varying by one order of magnitude betwen tow sub-basins of the study area. This is explained qualitatively by GIS-based analysis of slope frequency distributions, drainage density, and spatial distribution of surficial materials. Such observations find further support in the definitions of transport-limited and supply-limited basins. As a practical consideration to land managers, we envisage that supplementary fieldwork for landslide identification is mandatory in transport-limited systems only. Fieldwork has deomonstrated that gully-related failures have a greater importance than one could expect from API.
 
Brardinoni, F., et al. (2003). "Landslide inventory in a rugged forested watershed: a comparison between remotely sensed and field survey data." Greomorphology 54: 179-196.
Braun, P., T. Molnar, and H-B Kleeberg (1997). "The problem of scaling in grid-related hydroogical process modelling." Hydrologic Processes 11: 1219-1230.
This artical shows some important scaling aspects that exist in hydrological process grid modelling with GIS, with respect to selecting the optimal grid width. Hydrologically relevant space parameter fields should often be regarded as self-similar fractals for which certain invariance characteristics are applied. These characteristics are especially important if there is an extensive change in the model grid width. The self-similarity generates simple scaling laws, which can be used for rescaling procedures.
 
Bravard, J.-P., et al. (1986). "Impact of civil engineering works on the successions of communities in a fluvial system." Oikos 47: 92-111.
Bravo-Espinosa, M., W.R. Osterkamp, and V.L.Lopes (2003). "bedload transport in alluvial channels." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 129(10): 783-795.
Brayshaw, D. and M. A. Hassan (2009). "Debris flow initiation and sediment recharge in gullies." Geomorphology.
Landslides that enter gullied low-order drainages can either initiate debris flow or stop,
depositing sediment in the channel. This process is one of the most common ways that
debris flows initiate, but little attention to date has been paid to evaluating the factors that
affect whether or not the initial landslide will become a debris flow or deposit sediment
in the channel. Statistically significant parameters that determine whether slope failures
become debris flows or act to recharge in-channel sediment are channel gradient, angle of
entry of failure into the channel, initial failure volume, and the amount of in-channel
stored sediment. Steeper channels, low angles of entry, lower volumes of in-channel
sediment, and larger initial failures were more likely to result in debris flows. This study
found that as the volume of in-channel stored sediment increased, the volume of initial
failure required to initiate a debris flow also increased. This result calls into question the
simple supply-limited model of cyclical debris recharge and debris flow in low-order
gullied drainages and suggests a negative feedback mechanism between debris
accumulation and debris flow susceptibility
 
Breiman, L., J.H. Friedman, R.A. Ohlshen, and C.J. Stone (1998). Classification and Regression Trees., Chapman and Hall, Washington, D.C., 358 pp.
Breiman, L., et al. (1984). Classification and regression trees. Monterey, CA, Wadsworth & Brooks / Cole Advanced Books & Software.
Bren, L. J. (1997). "Effects of slope vegetation removal on the diurnal variations of a small mountain stream." Water Resources Research 33(2): 321-331.
The effect on removal of lower, mid, and upper slope vegetation on the diurnal
variation in streamflow from a 46-ha catchment was observed. The diurnal variation in
streamflow of the small stream was measurable during the late-spring-to-late-autumn
period. The amplitude in streamflow variation reached a maximum in early summer and
declined during autumn. Observation of diurnal variations during the periods of higher
flow in winter and spring showed that they may occur but were masked by much larger
variations associated with storm runoff. Simulation of the characteristics of the flow
measurement system showed that diurnal variations can only be studied using V-notch
weirs and float recorders during periods of low flow. No effect of the clearing of slope
vegetation on the phase of the outflow could be found. However, there was evidence of a
significanint creasien amplitudep, robablyd uet o increasegdr oundwateoru tflowfr omt he
slopes.I t was concludedt hat the diurnalv ariationi s due to transpirationb y the riparian
and near-riparianv egetationo nly, and that the lower to mid slopev egetationp laysl ittle
role in thisv ariationS. imulationssu ggestetdh at increaseadm plitudeis associatewdi th
increased flow rates, and that the amplitude is not directly affected by water use of
vegetationo n the catchments lopes.I t was concludedt hat the amplitudeo f the variationi s
insensitiveto changesin slopeh ydrologya nd cannotb e usedt o providei nsighti nto deep
slope processe
 
Brenden, T. O., et al. (2007). "Comparison between model-predicted and field-measured stream habitat features for evaluating fish assemblage-habatit relationships." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136: 580-592.
The use of model-predicted, local-scale habitat
data as inputs in analyses intended to evaluate multiscale fish
assemblage–habitat relationships in streams has become
increasingly common as the scale at which such studies are
conducted has increased. We used fish assemblage and habitat
data from 208 wadeable streams in Wisconsin and Michigan
to determine whether model-predicted habitat data would
yield results similar to those of field-measured data in
multiscale analyses of fish assemblage–habitat relationships.
Predictions of local habitat features from landscape variables
were generated by means of generalized additive modeling
with likelihood-based boosting. Relationships between fish
assemblage measures and landscape and local habitat features
were studied via partial constrained multivariate ordination
analyses. The total variation explained in the fish assemblage
data sets was similar for model-predicted local habitat features
and field-measured data, as was the proportion of variation
explained that was due independently to local and regional
(i.e., landscape) habitat features. We observed dissimilar
results in the magnitude of ordination scores for local habitat
features and the directional relationships between local habitat
ordination scores and individual species and assemblage
metric scores. Our findings indicate that model-predicted,
local-scale habitat data can be useful for evaluating the relative
strengths of local and regional habitat features in structuring
fish assemblages, but caution may be necessary when
evaluating species–habitat or assemblage metric–habitat
relationships.
 
Brenden, T. O., et al. (2007). "A spatially constrained clustering program for river valley segment delineation from GIS digital river networks." Envrionmental Modelling and Software 23(5): 638-649.
River valley segments are adjacent sections of streams and rivers that are relatively homogeneous in hydrology, limnology, channel morphology, riparian dynamics, and biological communities. River valley segments have been advocated as appropriate spatial units for assessing, monitoring, and managing rivers and streams for several reasons; however, methods for delineating these spatial units have been tedious to implement or have lacked objectivity, which arguably has limited their use as river and stream management units by natural resource agencies. We describe a spatially constrained clustering program that we developed for delineating river valley segments from geographic information system digital river network databases that is flexible, easy-to-use, and improves objectivity in the river valley segment delineation process. This program, which we refer to as the valley segment affinity search technique (VAST), includes a variety of options for determining spatial adjacency in stream reaches, as well as several data transformation methods, types of resemblance coefficients, and cluster linkage methods. The usefulness of VAST is demonstrated by using it to delineate river valley segments for river network databases for Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, and by comparing river valley segments delineated by VAST to an expert-opinion delineation previously completed for a Michigan river network database.
 
Brenning, A. (2005). "Spatial prediction models for landslide hazards: review, comparison and evaluation." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 5: 853-862.
The predictive power of logistic regression, support
vector machines and bootstrap-aggregated classification
trees (bagging, double-bagging) is compared using misclassification
error rates on independent test data sets. Based on
a resampling approach that takes into account spatial autocorrelation,
error rates for predicting “present” and “future”
landslides are estimated within and outside the training area.
In a case study from the Ecuadorian Andes, logistic regression
with stepwise backward variable selection yields lowest
error rates and demonstrates the best generalization capabilities.
The evaluation outside the training area reveals that
tree-based methods tend to overfit the data.
 
Breshears, D. D., J.J. Whicker, M.P. Johansen, and J.E. Pinder lll (2003). "Wind and water erosion and transport in semi-arid shrubland, grassland and forest ecosystems: quantifying dominance of horizontal wind-driven transport." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28: 1189-1209.
Breuer, L., J.A. Huisman, H.G. Frede. (2006). "Monte Carlo estimation of uncertainty in the simulated hydrological response to land use change." Environmental Model Assessment 11: 2009-2218.
Bridge, J. S. and S. J. Bennett (1992). "A Model for the Entrainment and Transport of Sediment Grains of Mixed Sizes, Shapes, and Densities." Water  Resources Research 28(2): 337-363.
Brierley, G. J. and E. J. Hickin (1985). "The Downstream Gradation of Particle Sizes in the Squamish River, British Columbia." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 10: 597-606.
Brinkmann, R., et al. (1993). Soil loss and the archeological record in the Plumas National Forest, California. Abstracts, Annual Meeting - Association of American Geographers, vol.89: 24-25.
Bristow, C. C., et al. (1993). "Morphology and facies models of channel confluences." Spec. Publs Int. Ass. Sedimentology 17: 91-100.
Bristow, C. S., et al. (1993). Morphology and facies models of channel confluences. Alluvial Sedimentation. M. Marzo and C. Puigdefabregas, International Association of Sedimentologists. Special Publication 17: 91-100.
British Columbia Ministry of Forests (1998). Statistical Methods for Adaptive Management Studies, B.C. Ministry of Forests.
Brocard, G. Y. and P. A. van der Beek (2006). Influence of incision rate, rock strength, and bedload supply on becrock river gradients and valley-flat widths: field-based evidence and calibrations from western alpine rivers (southeast France). Tectonics, Climate, and Landscape Evolution. S. D. Willett, N. Hovius, M. T. Brandon and D. Fisher, Geological Society of america: 101-126.
Several process-based models of river incision have been proposed in recent years
that attempt to describe fluvial landform development. Although some field tests have
been performed, more data are required to test the ability of these models to predict
the observed evolution of fluvial landforms. We have investigated several tens of rivers
located in the French western Alps that flow across folded sedimentary rocks with
strongly contrasting rock strengths. These rivers record significant variations in some
of the parameters controlling river incision, notably bedrock lithology, stream power,
incision rate, and sediment flux, potentially allowing discrimination between existing
models. Variations in incision rates are driven by variations in the amount of disequilibrium
introduced in the river profiles during the last glaciation. We use diagnostic
indices to investigate transport- and detachment-limited conditions, which include
the channel morphology, the occurrence of lithogenic knickpoints, the continuity of
alluvial and bedrock reaches, and the slope-area scaling of the river long profile. We
observe transitions from detachment-limited to transport-limited conditions with
increasing discharge/drainage area and decreasing incision rate. Bedrock strength
influences the location of the transition predictably. The formation of transport-limited
rivers coincides with the development of a valley flat wider than the active channel,
which accommodates variations in bedrock strength, stream power, and incision rate
along the transport-limited reaches. We propose and calibrate a model for the development
of valley flats along transport-limited rivers and explore some properties of
landscape development in mountain ranges controlled by transport-limited rivers.
 
Brooks, K. N. (1997). "Integrated Watershed Management Research." Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 29(3): 196-219.
Brown, A. E., Lu Zhang, T.A. McMahon, A. W. Western, and R. A. Vertessy (2005). "A review of paired catchment studies for determining changes in water yield resulting from alterations in vegetation." Journal of Hydrology 310: 28-61.
Brown, A. V., Y. Aguila, K. B. Brown and W. P. Fowler (1997). "Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates in small intermittent streams to silvicultural practices." Hydrobiologia 347(1-3): 119-125.
We examined macroinvertebrate communities in small(0.1-1.0 m2) pools of intermittent streams (alwayscontainingsome water but without perennial flow) with small watersheds(2-6 ha) subjected to five types of forest harvest to assesspotential impacts of the different harvest methods. Bufferstrips10 m wide were left on each side of the streams. Each harvesttreatment was coupled with a similar unharvested referencestand.An incomplete block design included three 0.05 m2 vacuumsamples from each treatment paired with three from theadjacentreferences. There was a high degree of similarity amongreferencesfor parameters other than taxonomic composition (e.g.macroinvertebrate density, number of species, Shannondiversity,functional groups, etc.). Statistically significantdifferenceswere found between references and treatments and among harvestmethods but the responses varied among response variables(density,Shannon-Weiner diversity, species composition), differentspeciesassemblages (all invertebrates, chironomids,Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera [EPT], isopods), andfunctional group categories (shredders, collector-gatherers).Wecollected 56 taxa, 7–16 per site, with low communitysimilarity(mean Jaccardlsquosthinsp=thinsp0.18, mean Bray-Curtis percentdissimilaritythinsp=thinsp81). The most severe harvest treatmentsresultedin the highest diversities of total invertebrates in thesesmallspring pool communities.
 
Brown, E. H., et al. (1986). Geologic map of the northwest Cascades, Washington. Bellingham, Washington.
Brown, E. R. t. e. (1985). Management of wildlife and fish habitat in forests of western Oregon and Washington. Portland, Oregon, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region: 2 Volumes.
Brown, G. W. and J. T. Krygier (1971). "Clear-Cut Logging and Sediment Production in the Oregon Coast Range." Water  Resources Research 7(5): 1189-1198.
Brown, L., et al. (1988). "Erosion of the Eastern United States observed with 10Be." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 13: 441-457.
Brown, L. R., et al. (1994). "Historical Decline and Current Status of Coho Salmon in California " North American Journal of Fisheries Management 14(2): 237-260.
Brown, T. C., D. Binkley (1994). Effect of management on water quality in North American forests. GTR-RM-248. F. C. USDA Forest Service, CO.
Brown, T. C., J.C. Bergstrom, and J.B. Loomis (2007). "Defining, valuing, and providing ecosystem services ." Natural Resources Journal 47(2): 331-376.
Brown, T. C., M.T. Hobbins, and J. A. Ramirez (2008). "Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44(5): 1-14.
Brown, T. J., B.L. Hall, and A. L. Westerling (2004). "The impact of twenty-first century climate change on wildland fire danager in the western United States: an applications perspective." Climatic Change 62: 365-388.
Brownlie, W. R. and B. D. Taylor (1981). "Sediment management for southern California mountains, coastal plains and shoreline; Part C, Coastal sediment delivery by major rivers in southern California." EQL Report 17-C: 334.
Bruhn, R. L. (1987). "Continental Tectonics: Selected Topics." Reviews of Geophysics 25(6): 1293-1304.
Brummer, C. J., et al. (2006). "Influence of vertical channel change associeated with wood accumulations on delineating channel migration zones, Washington, USA." Geomorphology.
We combine hydraulic modeling and field investigations of logjams to evaluate linkages between wood-mediated fluctuations
in channel-bed-and water-surface elevations and the potential for lateral channel migration in forest rivers of Washington state. In
the eleven unconfined rivers we investigated, logjams were associated with reduced channel gradient and bank height. Detailed
river gauging and hydraulic modeling document significant increases in the water-surface elevation upstream of channel-spanning
wood accumulations. Logjams initiated lateral channel migration by increasing bed-or water-surface elevations above adjacent
banks. Because the potential for a channel to avulse and migrate across its floodplain increases with the size and volume of
instream wood, the area of the valley bottom potentially occupied by a channel over a specified timeframe —the channel migration
zone (CMZ) —is dependent on the state of riparian forests. The return of riparian forests afforded by current land management
practices will increase the volume and caliber of wood entering Washington rivers to a degree unprecedented since widespread
clearing of wood from forests and rivers nearly 150 years ago. A greater supply of wood from maturing riparian forests will
increase the frequency and spatial extent of channel migration relative to observations from wood-poor channels in the period of
post-European settlement. We propose conceptual guidelines for the delineation of the CMZs that include allowances for vertical
fluctuations in channel elevation caused by accumulations of large woody debris.
 
Brummer, C. J. and D. R. Montgomery (2003). "Downstream coarsening in headwater channels." Water Resources Research 39(10): 1294.
Field data from four mountain drainage basins in western Washington document
systematic downstream coarsening of median bed surface grain size (D50 ) and a subsequent
shift to downstream fining at a drainage area of about 10 km
2
. Analyses of network-wide
patterns of unit stream power derived from both channel surveys and digital elevation
models reveal maximum unit stream power that in all four study areas roughly corresponds
with both the grain size maxima and an inflection in the drainage area-slope relation
thought to represent the transition from debris flow-dominated channels to fluvially
dominated channels. Our results support the hypothesis that basin-wide trends in D50 are
hydraulically controlled by systematic variations in unit stream power in addition to lag
deposits forced by mass-wasting processes. The similar relations found in our four study
areas suggest that the tendency for downstream coarsening may be ubiquitous in headwater
reaches of mountain drainage basins where debris flow processes set the channel
gradient.
 
Brummer, C. J. and D. R. Montgomery (2006). "Influence of coarse lag formation on the mechanics of sediment pulse dispersion in a mountain stream, Squire Creek, North Cascades, Washington, United States." Water Resources Research 42(7).
Mountain channels closely coupled to landslide-prone hillslopes often exhibit bed
surface grain sizes coarser than transportable by annual high flows. Coarse particles within
poorly sorted sediment delivered to channels by mass-wasting processes may not be
readily transported as bed load and can consequently form lag deposits that influence the
morphology, hydraulic roughness, and sediment storage within mountain channel
networks. A tracer study and comparison of supply and bed grain size distributions from a
valley-spanning landslide in the North Cascades of Washington state were used to
derive relations between shear stress and the probability of particle entrainment and
erosion from the sediment pulse. Rapid bed surface armoring formed a relatively immobile
lag deposit within 2 years. Covering of 20% of the bed by lag boulders with <5%
probability of entrainment was sufficient to retard vertical incision and force considerable
channel widening during a flood with an 8- to 152-year recurrence discharge on locally
gauged streams. Our results imply that numerical models of sediment pulse evolution
that do not explicitly incorporate the influence of lag formation may substantially
overestimate long-term dispersion rates. The grain size distribution and lithology of a
sediment input relative to the flow competence of the receiving channel are important
factors influencing the rates and mechanisms of sediment pulse dispersion and the sediment
capacitance provided by coarse-grained sediment pulses in mountain drainage basins.
 
Brummer CJ, a. D. M. (2003). "Downstream coarsening in headwater channels." Water Resources Research 39(10): 1294-1308.
Brunengo, M. J., et al. (1994). Earth, Water, Trees, and Fish: Geomorphology and Land-Use Problems in Forested Mountains of the Pacific Northwest. 1994 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington.
Bruns, D. A., et al. (1984). "Tributaries as modifiers of the river continuum concept: analysis by polar ordination and regression models." Archiv für Hydrobiologie 99: 208-220.
Bruns, D. A., et al. (1984). "Tributaries as modifiers of the river continuum concept: analysis by polar ordination and regression models." Archeological Hydrobiology 99(2): 208-220.
Brunsden, D. (1999). "Some geomorphological considerations for the future development of landslide models." Geomorphology 30: 13-24.
Brunsden, D. and D. K. C. Jones (1972). "The morphology of degraded landslide slopes in South West Dorset." Q. Jl. Eng.Geol. 5: 205-222.
Brunsden, D. and J. B. Thornes (1979). "Landscape sensitivity and change." Transactions, Institute of British Geographers NS 4: 485-515.
Brunton, D. A. and R. B. Bryan (2000). "Rill network development and sediment budgets." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25(7): 783-800.
Threshold conditions for rill incision are well known, but few studies have examined the effect of network geometry on water and sediment fluxes within an evolving rill system. This paper reports the first in a series of studies designed to identify the influence of soil properties on rill network and confluence geometry, and on water and sediment fluxes in rill systems. The object of this study was to prepare detailed rill network water and sediment budgets identifying important sources and sinks. Simulated rainfall experiments were carried out on a Canadian silt loam soil in a 7.1 m x 2.4 m flume on a 5 degrees slope. Rill networks of varying complexity developed, which were ultimately constrained by flume boundaries. Sediment and water fluxes and hydraulic conditions were measured within networks and at a terminal weir.Networks evolved by initial knickpoint incision in the lower flume, as flow shear velocities reached critical levels of 4.5-5 cm s(-1) followed by headward migration and tributary development. Microtopography determined tributary location, but the timing and intensity of development were controlled by the incision and migration rate of the main channel, which changed local thalwegs and base levels, raising shear Velocities on side slopes above critical levels. Sediment discharge at the weir broadly reflected rill incision intensity and transport-limited conditions, but as active incision moved headward, the linkage became attenuated and identification of discrete erosional incidents (e.g. local bank collapse) in the signal of the weir record became very difficult.Detailed water and sediment budgets showed much more complex patterns of localized incision and deposition within networks, strongly influenced by local changes in thalweg and in water discharge due to seepage or return flow, and by the effect of confluences on hydraulic conditions. Results indicate the value of detailed sediment budgets in interpreting weir water and sediment flux records, and the necessity of linking such measurements for erosion plots and hillslope segments to rill network characterization. Experimental results are consistent with a simple model of rill system evolution based on channel incision, headward migration, and the critical shear velocities for rill initiation. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Brutsaert, W. (1994). "The unit response of graoundwater outflow from a hillslope." Water Resources Research 30(10): 2759-2763.
Brutsaert, W. (1994). "The unit response of groundwater outflow from a hillslope." Water Resources Research 30(10): 2759-2763.
Bryan, R. B. (1979). "The Influence of Slope Angle on Soil Entrainment by Sheetwash and Rainsplash." Earth Surface Processes 4: 43-58.
Bryan, R. B. (2000). "Soil erodibility and processes of water erosion on hillslope."
The importance of the inherent resistance of soil to erosional processes, or soil erodibility, is generally recognized in hillslope and fluvial geomorphology, but the full implications of the dynamic soil properties that affect erodibility are seldom considered. In Canada, a wide spectrum of soils and erosional processes has stimulated much research related to soil erodibility. This paper aims to place this work in an international framework of research on water erosion processes, and to identify critical emerging research questions. It focuses particularly on experimental research on rill and interrill erosion using simulated rainfall and recently developed techniques that provide data at appropriate temporal and spatial scales, essential for event-based soil erosion prediction. Results show that many components of erosional response, such as partitioning between rill and interrill or surface and subsurface processes, threshold hydraulic conditions for rill incision, rill network configuration and hillslope sediment delivery, are strongly affected by spatially variable and temporally dynamic soil properties. This agrees with other recent studies, but contrasts markedly with long-held concepts of soil credibility as an essentially constant property for any soil type. Properties that determine erodibility, such as soil aggregation and shear strength, are strongly affected by climatic factors such as rainfall distribution and frost action, and show systematic seasonal variation. They can also change significantly over much shorter time scales with subtle variations in soil water conditions, organic composition, microbiological activity, age-hardening and the structural effect of applied stresses. Property changes between and during rainstorms can dramatically affect the incidence and intensity of rill and interrill erosion and, therefore, both short and long-term hillslope erosional response. Similar property changes, linked to climatic conditions, may also significantly influence the stability and resilience of plant species and vegetation systems. Full understanding of such changes is essential if current event-based soil erosion models such as WEPP and EUROSEM are to attain their full potential predictive precision. The complexity of the interacting processes involved may, however, ultimately make stochastic modelling more effective than physically based modelling in predicting hillslope response to erodibility dynamics.
 
Bryan, R. B. and D. L. Rockwell (1998). "Water table control on rill initiation and implications for erosional response." Geomorphology 23(2-4): 151-169.
On sloping sandy agricultural soil sites near Toronto, Canada, summer storms adequate to generate runoff occur frequently, but rill development occurs mainly in spring when snowmelt or rainfall-induced runoff occurs above frozen subsoil. This suggests that on low and moderate slopes on these soils rill initiation is controlled primarily by hydraulic impedance close to the surface, rather than critical hydraulic conditions in runoff. Laboratory flume experiments were carried out on 10 m slopes at 1.5 degrees, 5 degrees and 9 degrees with loamy sand/clay composite soil sample to test this hypothesis. Runoff with hydraulic conditions adequate for rill initiation occurred rapidly in most tests, but on 1.5 degrees and 5 degrees slopes little knickpoint scour or sediment transport occurred before water table development. This coincided with reduced surface soil strength, knickpoint scour and marked increase in sediment discharge, particularly on 5 degrees slopes where increase was 20- to 30-fold. Further increase in sediment discharge occurred when water tables reached the surface. On 9 degrees slopes runoff occurred more quickly, with higher hydraulic values. Significant rill incision and sediment discharge occurred well before water table development, and ultimately reached much higher values than on lower slopes. Results show that soil erodibility can change dramatically over short time periods during storms due to soil moisture conditions, and that the presence of a hydraulic impedance close to the surface which causes a perched water table to develop can strongly influence rill incision and sediment transport. The influence is unlikely to be marked on soils which are very erodible regardless of moisture conditions, or on extremely resistant soils. It will also be Limited on very gentle or steep sites, but can be a significant factor in rill development on intermediate slopes. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Bryant, M. D., et al. (1990). Evaluation of a Stream Channel-Type System for Southeast Alaska. Portland, OR, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 20.
Bryant, M. D., et al. (2004). "Salmonids on the fringe: abundance, species composition, and habitat use of salmonids in high-gradient headwater streams, southeast Alaska." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 1529-1538.
We evaluated the species distribution,
abundance, and habitat relationships of salmonids in
small first- to second-order headwater streams in south-east
Alaska. Streams were separated into three zones
based on gradient and sampled during the spring, sum-mer,
and fall. Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were found
in all streams where fish were present. They were the
dominant species in moderate- (mean gradient 5 5.5%)
and high-gradient (mean gradient 5 12.9%) zones. Coho
salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch fry and parr were the dom-inant
species in the low-gradient zone (mean gradient
5 3.1%) but were present in higher-gradient zones.
Small numbers of steelhead O. mykiss parr were present
in all three zones in the spring and fall. Few were cap-tured
during the summer. Coastal cutthroat trout O.
clarkii were found primarily in one stream and in all
three zones. The density of all species decreased as gra-dient
increased. Anadromous Dolly Varden in spawning
condition were observed in the fall up to the highest
accessible locations in four streams. Salmonids use high-gradient
reaches when pools are present and accessible.
Headwater tributaries comprise a large proportion of
most southeast Alaska watersheds, and the combined
contribution from all of these tributaries to the fish com-munity
may be large. The results from this study un-derscore
the importance of maintaining access for fish
throughout watersheds and into small high-gradient
streams.
 
Buchanan, P. (1988). Debris avalanche and debris torrent initiation, Whatcom County, Washington, U. S. A. Geological Sciences. Vancouver, British Columbia, University of British Columbia: 235.
Buchanan, P. and K. W. Savigny (1990). "Factors controlling debirs avalanche initiation." Can. Geotech. J. 27: 659-675.
Buffington, J. M. (1996). "An alternative method for determining subsurface grain size distributions of gravel-bedded rivers." EOS, Transactions, AGU 77(46): 250.
Buffington, J. M., et al. (2002). "Controls on the size and occurrence of pools in coarse-grained forest rivers." River Research and Applications 18: 507-531.
Controls on pool formation are examined in gravel- and cobble-bed rivers in forest mountain drainage basins of northern
California, southern Oregon, and southeastern Alaska. We demonstrate that the majority of pools at our study sites are
formed by flow obstructions and that pool geometry and frequency largely depend on obstruction characteristics (size,
type, and frequency). However, the effectiveness of obstructions to induce scour also depends on channel characteristics,
such as channel gradient, width:depth ratio, relative submergence (ratio of flow depth to grain size), and the calibre
and rate of bed material supply. Moreover, different reach-scale channel types impose different characteristic physical
processes and boundary conditions that further control the occurrence of pools within a catchment. Our findings indicate
that effective management of pools and associated aquatic habitat requires consideration of a variety of factors, each
of which may be more or less important depending on channel type and location within a catchment. Consequently,
strategies for managing pools that are based solely on single-factor, regional target values (e.g. a certain number of
wood pieces or pools per stream length) are likely to be ineffective because they do not account for the variety of local
and catchment controls on pool scour and, therefore, may be of limited value for proactive management of complex
ecosystems.
 
Buffington, J. M. and D. R. Montgomery (1997). "A systematic analysis of eight decades of incipient motion studies, with special reference to gravel-bedded rivers." Water Resources Research 33(8): 1993-2029.
Buffington, J. M. and D. R. Montgomery (1999). "Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers." Water Resources Research 35(11): 3507-3521.
Buffington, J. M. and D. R. Montgomery (1999). "Effects of sediment supply on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers." Water Resources Research 35(11): 3523-3530.
Buffington, J. M. and D. R. Montgomery (2001). "Reply." Water Resources Research 37(5): 1529-1533.
Buffington, J. M., et al. (2004). "Basin scale availability of salmonid spawning gravel as influenced by channel type and hydraulic roughness in mountain catchments." Can. Geotech. J. 61(11): 2085-2096.
Buffington, J. M., et al. (2004). "Basin-scale availability of salmonid spawning gravel as influenced by channel type and hydraulic roughness in mountain catchments." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 61: 2085-2096.
A general framework is presented for examining the effects of channel type and associated hydraulic roughness
on salmonid spawning-gravel availability in mountain catchments. Digital elevation models are coupled with grain-size predictions
to provide basin-scale assessments of the potential extent and spatial pattern of spawning gravels. To demonstrate
both the model and the significance of hydraulic roughness, we present a scenario for optimizing the spatial extent of spawning
gravels as a function of channel type in Pacific Northwest catchments. Predictions indicate that hydraulic roughness
could control more than 65% of the potential available spawning habitat at our study sites. Results further indicate that bar
roughness can be important for maintaining spawning gravels in lower mainstem reaches, while wood roughness may be required
for spawning-gravel maintenance in steeper, upper mainstem channels. Our analysis indicates that wood loss and consequent
textural coarsening could deplete up to one third of the potentially usable spawning area at our study sites.
 
 
Buffington, J. M., et al. (2003). Fluvial processes in Puget Sound Rivers and the Pacific Northwest. Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers. D. R. Montgomery, S. Bolton, D. B. Booth and L. Wall. Seattle, Washington, University of Washington Press: 46-78.
Bull, W. B. (1962). "Relation of textural (CM) patterns to depositional environment of alluvial-fan deposits." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 32(2): 211-216.
Bull, W. B. (1963). "Alluvial-fan Deposits in Western Fresno County California." Journal of Geology 71(2): 243-251.
Bull, W. B. (1964). Geomorphology of segmented alluvial fans in western Fresno County, California, US Geological Survey.
Bull, W. B. (1977). "The alluvial fan environment." Progress in Physical Geography 1: 222-270.
Bull, W. B. (1977). "The alluvial-fan environment." Progress in Physical Geography 1: 222-270.
Bull, W. B. (1979). "Threshold of critical power in streams." Geological Society of America Bulletin 90: 453-464.
Bull, W. B. (1984). Correlation of flights of global marine terraces. Tectonic Geormorphology. M. Morisawa and J. T. Hack, Allen and Unwin: 129-152.
Bull, W. B. (1999). Quaternary Climatic Changes and the Ice Ages. Surface Processes and Landforms. D. J. Eaterbrook. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall: 365-399.
Bunte, K., and L.H. MacDonald (1995). Detecting change in sediment loads: where and how is it possible? Effects of Scale on Interpretation and Management of Sediment and Water Quality (Proceedings of a Boulder Symposium), IAHS Publ. No. 226.
Bunte, K., and L.H. MacDonald (1999). Scale considerations and the detectability of sedimentary cumulative watershed effects. Technical Bulletin No. 776., National Council for Air and Stream Improvement,  Research Triangle Park, NC. 327 pp.: 327.
Bunte, K., and L.H. MacDonald (2002). Predicting the mean annual travel distance of streambed particles: a meta-analysis of published data. EOS Transactions, Abstract #H21G-05, Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA., American Geophysical Union.
Abstract H21G-05. The cumulative effect of sediment inputs on channel morphology and downstream aquatic resources depends on the rate of downstream particle transport. The use of physically-based models to predict the downstream migration of bedload waves is limited by the need for detailed channel and discharge data. The goal of our study is to determine whether simpler procedures can provide first-order estimates of sediment transport distances and hence the likely magnitude and timing of downstream effects. The specific objectives were to: (1) collect and review existing data on bedload and bedform travel distances; and (2) determine whether mean annual travel distance could be related to easily-measured variables such as stream type, stream gradient, stream width, basin area, size class of the particle(s) being observed, or bed material D50. Our literature review yielded 55 references with 84 observations of travel distance from individual tracer studies or the downstream migration of bedforms and bedload waves. In many cases we had to extrapolate the mean annual travel distance from shorter-term data. Hence the large variability in annual travel distances may partly due to the uncertainty in these extrapolations as well as differences in methodology and study design. Initial results indicate that mean annual travel distance decreases with stream gradient (R2=0.29), increases with basin area (R2=0.29), and decreases with increasing bed material D50 (R2=0.26). In contrast to Beechie (2001), stream width was a relatively poor predictor of mean annual travel distance. Strong correlations between the independent variables meant that multiple regression could explain only 39% of the variability in mean annual transport distances. Efforts to stratify the data showed that mean annual travel distances tended to be larger for streams with finer bed material, braided streams, and migrating bedforms. Coarse-bedded pool-riffle streams, step-pool streams, and ephemeral streams tended to have shorter mean annual travel distances than predicted by the global regressions. These patterns in bedload transport distances suggest that site- or stream-specific correction factors could be developed to improve the predictions derived from the complete data set. Additional analyses are being conducted to better understand the causes of the observed variability and determine the usefulness of this approach for predicting cumulative watershed effects.
 
Bunte, K. and L. MacDonald (1999). Scale considerations and the detectability of sedimentary cumulative watershed effects, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement.
Bunte, K. and L. H. MacDonald (1999). Scale considerations and the detectability of sedimentary cumulative watershed effects, NCASI Technical Bulletin 776. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: 327.
Burbank, D. W., et al. (1996). "Bedrock incision, rock uplift and threshold hillslopes in the northwestern Himalayas." Nature 379(8): 505-510.
Bureau of Land Management (2000). Science Strategy. Denver, Colorado, Bureau of Land Management: 19.
Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Interior (2008). Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Revision of the Resource Management Plans of the Western Oregon Bureau of Land Mangement, Vol. 3, Appendix J. Oregon and Washington State Office. Portland, OR. Volume III,.
Bureau, U. S. W. (1960). Generalized estimates of probable maximum precipitation for the United States west of the 105th meridian for areas to 400 square miles and duration to 24 hours: 66.
Burgan, R. E. and R. C. Rothermel (1984). BEHAVE: Fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling subsystem - fuel subsystem, USDA Forest Service.
Bürgmann, R., et al. (2000). "Synthetic aperture radar interferometry to measure Earth's surface topography and its deformation." Annual Review Earth and Planetary Sciences 28: 169-209.
Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) from Earth-orbiting
spacecraft provides a new tool to map global topography and deformation of the
Earth’s surface. Radar images taken from slightly different viewing directions allow
the construction of digital elevation models of meter-scale accuracy. These data sets
aid in the analysis and interpretation of tectonic and volcanic landscapes. If the Earth’s
surface deformed between two radar image acquisitions, a map of the surface displacement
with tens-of-meters resolution and subcentimeter accuracy can be constructed.
This review gives a basic overview of InSAR for Earth scientists and presents
a selection of geologic applications that demonstrate the unique capabilities of InSAR
for mapping the topography and deformation of the Earth.
 
 
Burke, K. J., et al. (in press). Holocene terraces, sand dunes, and debris fans along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Grand Canyon Geology. S. S. Beus and M. Morales. London, Oxford University Press.
Burkhardt, H. J. (1994). Maximizing Forest Productivity.
Burnett, K., et al. (2003). A first step toward broad scale identification of freshwater protected areas for pacific salmon and trout in Oregon, USA. Aquatic Protected Areas: What Works Best and How Do We Know? Proceedings of the World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas, Cairns, Australia, Austrain Society of Fish Biology, North Beach, WA, Australia.
Burnett, K. M. and D. Miller (2007). "Streamside Policies for Headwater Channels: An Example Considering Debris Flows in the Oregon Coastal Province." Forest Science 53(2): 239-253.
Burnett, K. M. and D. J. Miller (2007). "Streamside Policies for Headwater Channels: An Example Considering Debris Flows in the Oregon Coast Range Province." Forest Science 53(239-253).
Burnett, K. M. and D. J. Miller (2007). "Streamside policies for headwater channels: an example considering debris flows in the Oregon Coastal Province." Forest Science 53(2): 239-253.
Management policies are increasingly debated for headwater channels given their prevalence and ecological importance in many landscapes. Quantitative differences among headwater channels may offer an objective basis for prioritizing streamside protection. Here, we examine differences among headwater channels as potential transport corridors for debris flows. Specifically, we model differences among hill slopes and headwater channels in probabilities of initiating and being traversed by debris flows that deliver to fish-bearing channels. We develop an approach to rank these probabilities and apply the ranks in delineating alternative streamside management zones. Initiation and traversal probabilities are estimated from an empirically calibrated debris-flow model using regionally available 10-m digital elevation data. Alternatives are delineated by encompassing 25%, 50%, and 75% of debris-flow susceptible hill slopes and headwater channels. Highest initiation and traversal probabilities were contained in a relatively small percentage of the study area. Encompassing lower probabilities required disproportionately larger areas. Substituting delineated alternatives for currently prescribed headwater riparian management zones decreased the total area encompassed on federal lands but increased it on private and state lands. Our intent is not to advocate for any particular alternative but to demonstrate that knowledge about how headwater channels differ over large areas can help tailor riparian policies.
 
Burnett, K. M., et al. (2007). "Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation." Ecological Applications 17(1): 66-80.
Burnett, K. M., et al. (2006). Comparing Riparian and Catchment Influences on Stream Habitat in a Forested, Montane Landscape. Landscape Influences on Stream Habitats and Biological Assemblages. R. M. Hughes, L. Wang and P. W. Seelbach. Bethesda, MD, American Fisheries Society: 175-197.
Burnett, K. M., et al. (2003). A first step toward broad-scale identification of freshwater protected areas for Pacific Salmon and Trout in Oregon, USA. Aquatic Protected Areas: what works best and how do we know? Proceedings of the World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas, Cairns, Australia, August 2002. A. Grant and D. C. Smith. North Beach, WA, Australia, Australian Society for Fish Biology: 144-154.
Burnett, K. M., et al. (2007). "Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation." Ecological Applications 17(1): 66-80.
The geographic distribution of stream reaches with potential to support high-quality habitat for salmonids has bearing on the actual status of habitats and populations over broad spatial extents. As part of the Coastal Landscape Analysis and Modeling Study (CLAMS), we examined how salmon-habitat potential was distributed relative to current and future (+100 years) landscape characteristics in the Coastal Province of Oregon, USA. The intrinsic potential to provide high-quality rearing habitat was modeled for juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) based on stream flow, valley constraint, and stream gradient. Land ownership, use, and cover were summarized for 100-m analysis buffers on either side of stream reaches with high intrinsic potential and in the overall area encompassing the buffers. Past management seems to have concentrated nonindustrial private ownership, agriculture, and developed uses adjacent to reaches with high intrinsic potential for coho salmon. Thus, of the area in coho salmon buffers, 45% is either non-forested or recently logged, but only 10% is in larger-diameter forests. For the area in steelhead buffers, 21% is either non-forested or recently logged while 20% is in larger-diameter forests. Older forests are most extensive on federal lands but are rare on private lands, highlighting the critical role for public lands in near-term salmon conservation. Agriculture and development are projected to remain focused near high-intrinsic-potential reaches for coho salmon, increasing the importance of effectively addressing nonpoint source pollution from these uses. Percentages of larger-diameter forests are expected to increase throughout the province, but the increase will be only half as much in coho salmon buffers as in steelhead buffers. Most of the increase is projected for public lands, where policies emphasize biodiversity protection. Results suggest that widespread recovery of coho salmon is unlikely unless habitat can be improved in high-intrinsic-potential reaches on private lands. Knowing where high-intrinsic-potential stream reaches occur relative to landscape characteristics can help in evaluating the current and future condition of freshwater habitat, explaining differences between species in population status and risk, and assessing the need for and feasibility of restoration.
 
Burnett, M. R., et al. (1998). "The Influence of Geomorphological Heterogeneity of Biodiversity: I. A Patch-Scale Perspective." Conservation Biology 12(2): 363-370.
Burnham, K. P. and D. R. Anderson (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference. New York, Springer.
Burroughs, E., Jr. (1985). Landslide Hazard Rating for the Oregon Coast Range. Watershed Management for the Eighties, Denver, Colorado.
Burroughs, E. R., Jr. (1984). Landslide hazard rating for portions of the Oregon Coast Range. Symposium on Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability, Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, Environment and Policy Institution.
Burroughs, E. R. and B. R. Thomas (1977). "Declining root strength in Douglas-fir after felling as a factor in slope stability." U.S.D.A. Forest Service
Research Paper INT-190: 27.
Burroughs, E. R. J. and B. R. Thomas (1977). Declining Root Strength in Douglas-fir After Felling as a Factor in Slope Stability. Odgen, UT, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 27.
Bursik, M. I. and A. R. Gillespie (1993). "Late Pleistocene Glaciation on Mono Basin, California." Quaternary Research 39: 24-35.
Burton, C. L. a. M. S. R. (2003). "Decision support to assist environmental sedimentology modelling." enivonmental geology 43: 457-465.
Burton, T. A. (2005). "Fish and stream habitat risks from uncharacteristic wildfire: observations from 17 years of fire-related disturbances on the Boise National Forest, Idaho." Forest Ecology and Management 211: 140-149.
Several large, uncharacteristic wildfires occurred on the Boise National Forest in Southwest Idaho, from 1986 to 2003. From
1987 to 1994, severe wildfires burned almost 50% of the ponderosa pine forest types (about 200,000 ha). The intensity of the
fires varied across the landscape, with a mix of low to moderate severity, and lesser amounts of high burn severity. After the fires,
localized debris flows favored smaller order streams in watersheds less than 4000 ha in size, where there had been mostly high
severity burning. Locally, areas experiencing high heat and post-fire debris flows had reduced fish numbers and altered fish
habitats. Uncharacteristic wildfires on the managed portions of the Boise National Forest appeared to have more pronounced,
short-term effects on fish habitats as compared with characteristic wildfires in the Central Idaho Wilderness. Even in the most
severely impacted streams, habitat conditions and trout populations improved dramatically within 5–10 years. Post-fire floods
apparently rejuvenated stream habitats by exporting fine sediments and by importing large amounts of gravel, cobble, woody
debris, and nutrients, resulting in higher fish productivities than before the fire. These observations suggest that important
elements of biodiversity and fish productivity may be influenced, or even created by fire-related disturbances. In some cases,
habitats that were completely devoid of salmonid fishes just after the debris floods, were later re-colonized with migrants
returning from downstream or nearby tributary rearing habitats. Re-population was likely enhanced by higher fecundity, homing
instinct, and greater mobility of the larger migratory fish. Ecosystem restoration activities that reduce both short- and long-term
threats of uncharacteristic wildfire on imperiled fishes could be emphasized in areas where local populations may be weak and/or
isolated, but potentially recoverable. But forest ecosystem restoration alone may not reduce risks to fish if existing habitat
conditions and isolation are limiting the population.
 
 
Bush, G. (1983). Landslide Survey - 1981-1982, Summary sheet and worksheets. Corvallis, Oregon, Siuslaw National Forest Headquarters.
Bush, G., et al. (1997). Assessment of the effects of the 1996 flood on the Siuslaw National Forest. Corvallis, OR, USDA Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest: 47.
Buss, K. (1989). Some General Aspects of Debris Flows (DRAFT).
Butler, D. R. (1989). "Snow Avalanche-Dams and Resultant Hazards in Glacier National Park, Montana." Northwest Science 63(3): 109-115.
Butler, J. J. J., et al. (2007). "A field investigation of phreatophyte-induced fluctuations in the water table." Water Resources Research 43.
Hydrographs from shallow wells in vegetated riparian zones frequently display a
distinctive pattern of diurnal water table fluctuations produced by variations in plant water
use. A multisite investigation assessed the major controls on these fluctuations and the
ecohydrologic insights that can be gleaned from them. Spatial and temporal variations in
the amplitude of the fluctuations are primarily a function of variations in (1) the
meteorological drivers of plant water use, (2) vegetation density, type, and vitality, and
(3) the specific yield of sediments in the vicinity of the water table. Past hydrologic
conditions experienced by the riparian zone vegetation, either in previous years or earlier
within the same growing season, are also an important control. Diurnal water table
fluctuations can be considered a diagnostic indicator of groundwater consumption by
phreatophytes at most sites, so the information embedded within these fluctuations should
be more widely exploited in ecohydrologic studies.
 
Butler, P. R. (1977). "Movement of cobblesin a gravel-bed stream during a flood season." GSA Bull 88: 1072-1074.
In a gravel-bed perennial stream in western Wyoming, 159 cobbles were tagged and placed on the stream bed. Thirty-five percent were recovered after one flood season during which the peak flow was 34 m3/s. Sixty-one percent of those recovered had been buried. The b axis of the tagged rocks ranged from 34 mm to 116 mm. The distance transported ranged from 0 to 420 m; 95% of the recovered cobbles had moved. There is no clear relationship between particle size and distance transported; distance of transport seems to be more closely related to position (stream edge or center) at time of entrainment. Susceptibility to burial seems to be related to both particle size and position at time of entrainment.
 
Buttle, J. M. and D. J. McDonald (2002). "Coupled vertical and lateral preferential flow on a forested slope." Water Resources Research 35(5): 1060, doi:1010,1029/2001 WR000773,002002.
Butturini, A., et al. (2002). "The influence of riparian-hyporheic zone on the hydrological responses in an intermittent stream." Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 6(3): 515-525.
Stream and riparian groundwater hydrology has been studied in a small intermittent stream draining a forested catchment for a system
representative of a Mediterranean climate. The relationship between precipitation and stream runoff and the interactions between stream
water and the surrounding riparian groundwater have been analysed under a wide spectrum of meteorological conditions. The hypothesis that
the hydrological condition of the near-stream groundwater compartment can regulate the runoff generation during precipitation events was
tested. Stream runoff is characterised by a summer dry period, and precipitation input explained only 25% of runoff variability over the study
period (r2=0.25, d.f.=51, p<0.001). The variability of precipitation v. stream runoff is explained partly by the hydrogeological properties of
the riparian near-stream zone. This zone is characterised by high hydrological conductivity values and abrupt changes in groundwater level
in summer. The summer dry period begins with a rapid decrease in near-stream groundwater level, and ends just after the first autumnal rain
when the original groundwater level recovers suddenly. Within this period, storms do not cause major stream runoff since water infiltrates
rapidly into the riparian compartment until it is refilled during the subsequent winter and spring; then the precipitation explains the 80% of
the stream runoff variability (r2=0.80, d.f.=34, p<0.001). These results suggest that the hydrological interaction between the riparian groundwater
compartment and the stream channel is important in elucidating the hydrological responses during drought periods in small Mediterranean
streams.
 
 
Byron, E. R. and C. R. Goldman (1989). "Land-Use and Water Quality in Tributary Streams of Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada." Journal of Enivironmental Quality 18: 84-88.
C. H. Luce, T. A. B. (1999). "Sediment production from forest roads in western Oregon." Water  Resources Research 35(8): 2561-2570.
C.R.W.Q.C.B. (2002). Mattole River Watershed Technical Support Document for the TMDL for Sediment (Draft). North Coast region, California Regional Water Quality Control Board.
Cafferata, P. H. and T. E. Spittler (1998). Logging Impacts of the 1970's vs. the 1990's in the Caspar Creek Watershed, US Forest Service: 103-112.
Cafferata, P. H., et al. (1998). Logging impacts of the 1970's vs. the 1990's in the Caspar Creek watershed. General Technical Report PSW, Report: PSW-GTR-168: 103-115.
The Caspar Creek watershed study provides resource professionals with information regarding the impacts of timber operations conducted under varying forest practices on sensitive aquatic habitats. In the South Fork watershed, roads were constructed near watercourse channels in the 1960's, and the watershed was selectively logged using tractors during the early 1970's. Subwatersheds in the North Fork were clearcut from 1985 to 1991 using predominantly cable yarding and roads located high on ridges. Numerous landslides were documented after road construction and logging in the South Fork owing to inadequate road, skid trail, and landing design, placement, and construction. In contrast, the size and number of landslides after timber operations in the North Fork to date have been similar in logged and unlogged units. Considerably more hillslope erosion and sediment yield have also been documented after logging operations in the South Fork, when compared to the North Fork. An analysis of the storm events associated with documented landslides showed that high 3-day or 10-day precipitation totals in combination with moderately high 1-day amounts have been more important than very high 1-day totals alone in triggering debris sliding at Caspar Creek. Storm sequences meeting the criteria required for causing documented landslides were found to have occurred in all phases of the 36-year study, with the greatest number occurring in water year 1998. Numerous large landslides associated with the road system in the South Fork occurred in early 1998, indicating that "legacy" roads continue to be significant sources of sediment decades after they were constructed.
 
Cain, D. H., et al. (1997). "A multi-scale analysis of landscape statistics." Landscape Ecology 12: 199-212.
Caine, N. (1980). "The rainfall intensity - duration control of shallow landslides and debris flows." Geografiska Annaler 62: 23-27.
Caine, N. (1990). "Rainfall intensity - duration control on shallow landslides and debris flows." Geografika Annaler 62A: 23-27.
Cairns, J., Jr. (1990). "Lack of Theoretical Basis for Predicting Rate and Pathways of Recovery." Environmental Management 14(5): 517-526.
CALFED (1998). Ecosystem Restoration Program Plan, CALFED: 40-46.
California Department of Conservation (1997). Factors affecting landslides in forested terrain California Department of Conservation: 1-5.
California Department of Water Resources (1975). Van Duzen River Basin Environmental Atlas, Prepared in cooperation with Humboldt County.
Caminiti, J. E. (2004). "Catchment modelling - a resource manager's perspective." Environmental Modelling & Software 19(11): 991-996.
Campbell, A. J. and R. C. Sidle (1985). "Bedload transport in a pool-riffle sequence of a coastal Alaska stream." Water Resources Bulletin 21(4): 579-590.
Campbell, C. S. (1989). "Self-lubrication for long runout landslides." The Journal of Geology 97(6): 653-665.
Campbell, D. H. (1984). The transport of road derived sediment as a function of slope characteristics and time. Department of Earth Resources. Fort Collins, CO, M.S. Thesis, Colorado State University: 46.
Campbell, R. H. (1975). Soil slips, debris flows, and rainstorms in the Santa Monica mountains and vicinity, Southern California, US Geologic Survey: 1-51.
Campo, J., V. Andreu, E. Gimeno-Garcia, O. Gonzalez, and J.L. Rubio (2006). "Occurrence of soil erosion after repeated experimental fires in a Mediterranean environment." Geomorphology 82(376-386).
Cannon, S. H. (1993). An empirical model for the volume-change behavior of debris flows. Proceedings, Hydraulic Engineering '93. H. W. Shen, S. T. Su and F. Wen. New York, American Society of Civil Engineers. 2: 1768-1777.
Cannon, S. H. (2001). "Debris-flow generation from recently burned watersheds." Environmental & Engineering Geoscience 7(4): 321-341.
Cannon, S. H. and S. Ellen "Rainfall conditions for abundant debris avalanches San Francisco bay region, California." California Geology: 267-272.
Cannon, S. H. and S. Ellen (1985). "Abundant Debris Avalanches." California Geology: 267-272.
Cannon, S. H. and J. E. Gartner (2005). Wildfire-related debris flows from a hazards perspective (Chapter 15). Heidelberg, Springer-Praxis.
Cannon, S. H., et al. (2007). Methods for the emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the fires of 2007, southern California: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007-1384: 10.
This report describes the approach used to assess potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the Buckweed, Santiago, Canyon, Poomacha, Ranch, Harris, Witch, Rice, Ammo, Slide, Grass Valley and Cajon Fires of 2007 in southern California. The assessments will be presented as a series of maps showing a relative ranking of the predicted volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to a 3-hour duration rainstorm with a 10-year return period. Potential volumes of debris flows are calculated using a multiple-regression model that describes debris-flow volume at a basin outlet as a function of measures of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. This assessment provides critical information for issuing basin-specific warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning of evacuation timing and routes.
 
Cannon, S. H., et al. (2003). Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the Grand Prix and Old Fires of 2003, Southern California. U.S.G.S. Open File Report 03-475.
Cannon, S. H., et al. (2008). "Storm rainfall conditions for floods and debris flows from recently burned areas in southwestern Colorado and southern California." Geomorphology 96: 250-269.
Debris flows generated during rain storms on recently burned areas have destroyed lives and property throughout the
Western U.S. Field evidence indicate that unlike landslide-triggered debris flows, these events have no identifiable
initiation source and can occur with little or no antecedent moisture. Using rain gage and response data from five fires in
Colorado and southern California, we document the rainfall conditions that have triggered post-fire debris flows and
develop empirical rainfall intensity–duration thresholds for the occurrence of debris flows and floods following wildfires in
these settings. This information can provide guidance for warning systems and planning for emergency response in similar
settings.
Debris flows were produced from 25 recently burned basins in Colorado in response to 13 short-duration, high-intensity
convective storms. Debris flows were triggered after as little as six to 10 min of storm rainfall. About 80% of the storms that
generated debris flows lasted less than 3 h, with most of the rain falling in less than 1 h. The storms triggering debris flows ranged in
average intensity between 1.0 and 32.0 mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for
floods and debris flows sufficiently large to pose threats to life and property from recently burned areas in south-central, and
southwestern, Colorado are defined by: I=6.5D− 0.7 and I=9.5D− 0.7, respectively, where I=rainfall intensity (in mm/h) and
D=duration (in hours).
Debris flows were generated from 68 recently burned areas in southern California in response to long-duration frontal
storms. The flows occurred after as little as two hours, and up to 16 h, of low-intensity (2–10 mm/h) rainfall. The storms
lasted between 5.5 and 33 h, with average intensities between 1.3 and 20.4 mm/h, and had recurrence intervals of two
years or less. Threshold rainfall conditions for life- and property-threatening floods and debris flows during the first
winter season following fires in Ventura County, and in the San Bernardino, San Gabriel and San Jacinto Mountains of
southern California are defined by I= 12.5D−0.4, and I=7.2D−0.4, respectively. A threshold defined for flood and debrisflow
conditions following a year of vegetative recovery and sediment removal for the San Bernardino, San Gabriel and
San Jacinto Mountains of I=14.0D−0.5 is approximately 25 mm/h higher than that developed for the first year following
fires.
 
Cannon, S. H., et al. (2001). "Wildfire-related debris-flow initiation processes, Storm King Mountain, Colorado." Geomorphology 39: 171-188.
Cannon, S. H. and S. I. Reneau (2000). "Conditions for generation of fire-related debris flows, Capulin Canyon, New Mexico." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25: 1103-1121.
Cannon, S. H. and W. Z. Savage (1988). "A mass-change model for the estimation of debris-flow runout." Journal of Geology 96: 221-227.
Canon, J., Dominguez, F., and J.B. Valdez ( (submitted)). "Downscaling climate variability associated with quasi-periodic climate signals: a new statistical approach. ." Climate Change.
Canon, J. J., Gonzalez, and J. Valdez (2007). "Precipitation in the Colorado River Basin and its low frequency associations with PDO and ENSO signals." Journal of Hydrology 333(24): 252-264.
Capra, A., L.M. Mazzara, and B. Scicolone (2005). "Application of the EGEM model to predict gully erosion in Sicily, Italy." Catena 59: 133-146.
Carling, P. A. (1983). "Threshold of coarse sediment transport in broad and narrow natural steams." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 8: 1-18.
Carling, P. A. (1987). "Hydrodynamic Interpretation of a Boulder Berm and Associated Debris-Torrent Deposits." Geomorphology 1: 53-67.
Carling, P. A. (?). In-stream Hydraulics and Sediment Transport. ?: 101-125.
Carling, P. A., et al. (1998). "Coarse Bedload Transport in a Mountain River." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23: 141-157.
Carling PA, J. W., A Kelsey, MS Glaister, and HG Orr (1998). "Coarse bedload transport in a mountain river." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23: 141-157.
Carrara, A., et al. (1991). "GIS techniques and statistical models in evaluating landslide hazard." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 16: 427-445.
Carson, B. (1985). Erosion and Sedimentation Processes in the Nepalese Himalaya. Kathmandu, Nepal, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development: 39.
Carson, M. A. (1966). "The magnitude of variability in samples of certain geomorphic characteristics drawn from valley-side slopes."?: 93-100.
Carson, M. A. (1987). "Measures of flow intensity as predictors of bedload." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 113(11): 1402-1421.
Carson, M. A. and G. A. Griffiths (1985). "Tractive stress and the onset of bed particle movement in gravel stream channels: different equations for different purposes." Journal of Hydrology 79: 375-388.
Carson, M. A. and G. A. Griffiths (1987). "Bedload Transport in Gravel Channels." Journal of Hydrology 26(1): 1-151.
Carson, W. W. and S. E. Reutebuch (1997). A rigorous test of the accuracy of USGS digital elevation models in forested areas of Oregon and Washington. 1997 ACSM/ASPRS Annual Convention & Exposition. Seattle, WA, American Congress of Surveying and Mapping; American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing. 1: 133-143.
A procedure for performing a rigorous test of elevational accuracy of DEMs using independent ground coordinate data digitized photogrammetrically from aerial photography is presented. The accuracy of a sample set of 23 DEMs covering National Forests in Oregon and Washington was evaluated. Accuracy varied considerably between eastern and western parts of Oregon and Washington, and to a lesser extent, by DEM production method. The elevational root mean square errors (RMSE) computed from independent ground data for DEMs produced using the line-trace method were on average 4 times larger than RMSEs published by the USGS for both eastside and westside DEMs. Computed RMSEs for all Westside line-trace DEMs exceeded 7m; whereas,80% of eastside line-trace DEMs had computed RMSEs of 7m or less.
 
Casadei, M., et al. (2003). "Testing a model for predicting the timing and location of shallow landslide initiation in soil-mantled landscapes." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(DOI:10.1002/esp.470): 925-950.
Casali, J., J.J. Lopez, and J.V. Giraldez (1999). "Ephemeral gully erosion in southern Navarra (Spain)." Catena 36: 65-84.
Cashman, S. M., et al. (1995). Geology of the Redwood Creek Basin, Humboldt County, California. Geomorphic Processes and Aquatic Habitat in the Redwood Creek Basin.
Castro, J. M. and P. L. Jackson (2001). "Bankfull discharge recurrence intervals and regional hydraulic geometry relationships: patterns in the Pacific Northwest, USA." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(5): 1249-1262.
Caswell, H. (1976). The Validation Problem. Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology. B. C. Patton, Academic Press: 313-325.
Cederholm, C. J., et al. (1997). "Response of juvenile coho salmon and steelhead to placement of large woody debris in a coastal Washington stream." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17: 947-963.
Many fish habitats have been altered in Pacific Northwest streams and rivers over the
past century by a variety of land use practices, including forestry, urbanization, agriculture, and channelization.
There are research and management needs for evaluation of the effectiveness of rehabilitation
projects intended to enhance stream fish habitat recovery. The response of populations of juvenile coho
salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch and steelhead O. mykiss to addition of large woody debris (LWD) was
tested in North Fork Porter Creek (NFPC). a small coastal tributary of the Chehalis River. Washington.
The NFPC was divided into three 500-m study sections; two sections were altered with two approaches
(engineered and logger's choice) to adding LWD. and the third was kept as a reference site. Immediately
after LWD addition, the abundance of LWD pieces was 7.9 limes greater than the pretreatment level
in the engineered site and 2.7 times greater in the logger's choice site; abundance was unchanged in
the reference site. Subsequent winter storms brought additional LWD into all three study sites. In the
years that followed, the amount of pool surface area increased significantly in both the engineered and
logger's choice sites, while it decreased slightly in the reference site. After LWD addition, winter
populations of juvenile coho salmon increased significantly in the engineered and logger's choice sites,
while they remained the same in the reference site. There were no significant differences in the coho
salmon populations during spring and autumn within the reference, engineered, or logger's choice sites.
The coho salmon smolt yield from the engineered and logger's choice sites also increased significantly
after LWD addition, while it decreased slightly in the reference site. After LWD addition, the reference
site and the engineered site both exhibited increases in age-0 steelhead populations; however, the
population in the logger's choice site did not change. There was no difference in age-1 steelhead
abundance among sites, or before and after enhancement during any season. Winter populations of
juvenile coho salmon and age-0 steelhead were related inversely to maximum and mean winter discharge.
 
 
Cederholm, C. J. and L. M. Reid (1987). Impact of forest management on coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) populations of the Clearwater River, Washington: A project summary. Streamside Management, Forestry and Fishery Interactions. E. O. Salo and T. W. Cundy. Seattle, Institute of Forest Resources, University of Washington: 373-398.
Cederholm, C. J., et al. (1980). Effects of Forest Road Erosion on Salmonid Spawning Gravel Composition and Populations of the Clearwater River, Washington. Salmon-Spawning Gravel: A Renewable Resource in the Pacific Northwest?, Seattle, Washington.
Cenderelli, D. A. and J. S. Kite (1998). "Geomorphic effects of large debris flows on channel morphology at North Fork Mountain, Eastern West Virginia, USA." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23: 1-19.
Cendrero, A. and F. Dramis (1996). "The contribution of landslides to landscape evolution in Europe." Geomorphology 15: 191-211.
Center for Streamside Studies (1988). Slope Stability and Forest Management. Seattle, Washington, University of Washington.
CEQ (1997). Considering cumulative effects under the National Environmental Policy Act. C. o. E. Quality. Washington, DC, Council on Environmental Quality: 64pp.
Cerdan, O., et al. (2002). "Rill erosion on cultivated hillslopes during two extreme rainfall events in Normandy, France." Soil & Tillage Research 67(1): 99-108.
Cerdan, O., et al. (2002). "Modelling interrill erosion in small cultivated catchments." Hydrological Processes 16(16): 3215-3226.
Cerdan, O., et al. (2002). "Sediment concentration in interrill flow: Interactions between soil surface conditions, vegetation and rainfall." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27(2): 193-205.
Cerveny, P. F., et al. (1988). History of Uplift and Relief of the Himalaya During the Past 18 Million Years: Evidence from Fission-Track Ages of Detrital Zircons from Sandstones of the Siwalik Group. New Perspectives in Basin Analysis. K. L. Kleinsphen and C. Paola, Springer-Verlag.
Chakraborti, R. K., et al. "Evaluation of aggregate properties in suspensions from in-situ measurements."
Size and density of flocs are important to evaluate the settling rate in natural waters. A study was conducted to determine the floc properties in a coagulation-flocculation mechanism of fine-grained suspended particles from the analysis of aggregate structure. The properties of large suspended flocs were determined from the images using a newly developed non-intrusive imaging technique. This analysis provides a direct description of the shape and size of floc. These flocs tend to be large, highly porous and irregularly shaped, and are described by fractal dimensions. Several important characteristics of the aggregates, including density, porosity and number of primary particles in an aggregate are calculated using fractal approach. For larger aggregates with smaller fractal dimensions, floc density and porosity demonstrate strong negative and positive relationships, respectively. A power law relationship between floc density and porosity has been found which lead to floc settling speed. A relationship among the solid content, floc density and the number of primary particles are established. Greater understanding of the relationship between the geometrical properties of aggregates and their behavior in flocculating systems increases our ability to understand flocculation mechanisms and the resulting sedimentation rate.
 
Chamberlin, T. W. (1982). Influence of Forest and Rangeland Management on Anadromous Fish Habitat in Western North America: Timber Harvest. Portland, Oregon, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture: 30.
Chang, H. H. (1984). "Modeling of River Channel Changes." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 110(2): 157-172.
Chang, H. H. (1994). "Selection of Gravel-Transport Formula for Stream Modeling." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 120(5): 646-651.
Chapman, D. W. (1988). "Critical Review of Variables Used to Define Effects of Fines in Redds of Large Salmonids." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 117(1): 1-21.
Chapman, D. W., et al. (1986). "Effects of River Flow on the Distribution of Chinook Salmon Redds " Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115: 537-547.
Chapman, T. G. (1996). "Common unitgraphs for sets of runoff events. Part 1: Unitgraph identification from streamflow data." Hydrological Processes 10: 773-782.
Charron, I. and E. A. Johnson (2006). "The importance of fires and floods on tree ages along mountainous gravel-bed streams." Ecological Applications 16(5): 1757-1770.
This paper examines the commonly accepted assumption in the riparian
literature that areas adjacent to streams do not burn.Using time-since-fire distributions,
derived from stand-origin maps for a watershed in the front ranges of the Canadian Rocky
Mountains,we found that the areas adjacent to streams and the whole study watershed have
similar fire frequencies.In addition,the relative importance of fires and floods is regulated by a
change in channel morphology associated with the creation of bars.The results demonstrate
that fires solely control tree establishment along straight streams without bars,while the
in fluence of floods is observed at the onset of lateral-and point-bar formation.This occurs
because bars are formed in-channel and require smaller discharges in order to be flooded,
compared to higher terraces.Consequently,bars are the only surfaces being flooded more
frequently than they are being burned.Thus,overall the results indicate that,on this
watershed,areas adjacent to streams are not less likely to burn than the uplands,except for
lateral and point bars.The generality of these results to other systems should be tested as they
have important implications for current forest ecological de finition of ‘‘riparian zones,’’which
typically include all fluvially derived landforms,from the channel banks to the terraces.
Indeed,this study suggests that along smaller,headwater,gravel-bed mountain watersheds,
the forests found on terraces are only in fluenced by fire and not fluvial processes and should
therefore not be included in the riparian zone,while the forests on bars are the only surfaces
currently being in fluenced by fluvial processes.Such a change in de finition has implications for
both ecologists and forest managers aiming to protect areas along streams as they now must
take into account the effects of two disturbances on these small gravel-bed streams.
 
Chatwin, S. C., et al. (1994). A Guide for Management of Landslide-Prone Terrain in the Pacific Northwest. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, Crown Publications Inc.
546 Yates Street
Victoria, B.C., V8W 1K8.
Chaudhury, P. and J. Tumblin (2003). The trilateral filter for high contrast images and meshes. Eurographics Symposium on Rendering. P. Christensen and D. Cohen-Or: 1-11.
We present a new, single-pass nonlinear  lter for edge-preserving smoothing and visual detail removal for N
dimensional signals in computer graphics, image processing and computer vision applications. Built from two
modi ed forms of Tomasi and Manduchi's bilateral  lter, the new .trilateral.  lter smoothes signals towards
a sharply-bounded, piecewise-linear approximation. Unlike bilateral  lters or anisotropic diffusion methods that
smooth towards piecewise constant solutions, the trilateral  lter provides stronger noise reduction and better outlier
rejection in high-gradient regions, and it mimics the edge-limited smoothing behavior of shock-forming PDEs by
region  nding with a fast min-max stack. Yet the trilateral  lter requires only one user-set parameter,  lters an
input signal in a single pass, and does not use an iterative solver as required by most PDE methods. Like the
bilateral  lter, the trilateral  lter easily extends to N-dimensional signals, yet it also offers better performance
for many visual applications including appearance-preserving contrast reduction problems for digital photography
and denoising polygonal meshes.
 
Chen, J. (1998). "The simulation of runoff using a time-area graph derived from DTM." ITC Journal 2: 113-117.
Chen, J. C. and C. D. Jan (2003). Probabilistic equation of critical slope for debris-flow occurrence. Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment. D. Rickenmann and C. Chen. Rotterdam, Millpress. 1: 83-89.
Chen, X., et al. (2008). "Effects of large woody debris on surface structure and aquatic habitat in forested streams, southern interior British Columbia, Canada." River Research and Applications 24: 862-875.
It is well known that large woody debris (LWD) plays an important functional role in aquatic organisms’ life. However, the
influence of LWD on channel morphology and aquatic environments at watershed levels is still unclear. The relationships
between wood and surface structure and aquatic habitat in 35 first through fifth order streams of southern interior British
Columbia were investigated. Study streams in the channel networks of the study watersheds were classified into four size
categories based on stream order and bankfull width: Stream size I: bankfull width was less than 3m, Stream size II: 3–5 m,
Stream size III: 5–7 m, Stream size IV: larger than 7m.We found the number of functional pieces increased with stream size and
wood surface area in stream sizes I, II and III (24, 28 and 25m2/100m2, respectively) was significantly higher than that in stream
size IV (12m2/100m2). The contribution of wood pieces to pool formation was 75% and 85% in stream sizes II and III,
respectively, which was significantly higher than those in stream size I (50%) and size IV (25%). Between 21% and 25% of wood
pieces were associated with storing sediment, and between 20% and 29% of pieces were involved in channel bank stability in all
study streams. Due to long-term interactions, LWD in the intermediate sized streams (Size II and III) exhibited much effect on
channel surface structure and aquatic habitats in the studied watersheds. Copyright
 
Chen, Y. D. (2004). "Watershed modeling: Where are we heading?" Environmental Informatics Archives 2: 132-139.
Cheng, J. D. (1989). "Streamflow Changes After Clear-Cut Logging of a Pine Beetle-Infested Watershed in Southern British Columbia, Canada." Water Resources Research 25(3): 449-456.
Chernick, M. R. (1999). Bootstrap Methods. A Practitioner's Guide. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chorley, R. J. and B. A. Kennedy (1971). Physical Geography, A Systems Approach. London, Prentice Hall.
Christiansen, N. L., et al. (1989). "Interpreting the Yellowstone Fires of 1988." BioScience 39(10): 678-685.
ChuanWen, L., et al. Construction of GIS forest themes and their application to stream protective forest planning. Dongbei Linye Daxue Xuebao 28 (2), 4-8 pp.;   4 ref.; 2000.
GIS (Geographic information system) was developed for the forest of the Maor Mountain range in [Heilongjiang Province] China, with details of the characteristics and forest resources of each compartment and subcompartment from remote sensing data. A serial number system was allocated to the streams, compartments and subcompartments. The data in the GIS was used to classify and plan stream protective forest, based on the land occupation rate of protective forest per metre (LOR). The protective forest of the streams in the Beilin range of Maor Mountain forest farm was compartmentalized according to LOR, and a planning map was plotted directly.
 
Chung, C. J. and A. G. Fabbri (2003). "Validation of spatial prediction models for landslide hazard mapping." Natural Hazards 30: 451-472.
Chung, C. J. and A. G. Fabbri (2005). Systematic procedures of landslide-hazard mapping for risk assessment using spatial prediction models. Landslide Hazard and Risk. T. Glade, M. G. Anderson and M. J. Crozier. Chichester, England, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: 139-174.
Church, M. (1980). Records of recent geomorpholgical events, in Cullingford. Time Scales in Geomorphology. R. A. D. Cullingford, D.A.,  and J. Lewin, John Wiley: 13-29.
Church, M. (1983). Pattern of instability in a wandering gravel bed channel. Modern and ancient fluvial systems. J. D. Collinson and J. Lewin. Oxford, Blackwell. 6: 169-180.
Church, M., J.F. Wolcott, and W.K. Fletcher (1991). "A test of equal mobility in fluvial sediment transport: behavior of the sand fraction." Water Resources Research 27(11): 2941-2951.
Church, M. (1998). The Landscape of the Pacific Northwest. Carnation Creek and Queen Charlotte Islands Fish/Forestry Workshop: Applying 20 Years of Coastal Research to Management Solutions, Queen Charlotte City, B. C., B.C. Ministry of Forests.
Church, M. (2002). "Geomorphic thresholds in riverine landscapes." Freshwater Biology 47(4): 541-557.
Church, M. (2006). "Bed material transport and the morphology of alluvial river channels." Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 34: 325-354.
The morphology of an alluvial river channel is the consequence of sediment trans-
port and sedimentation in the river.Morphological style is determined chie fly by
the caliber and quantity of sediment delivered to the channel,although modulated
by channel scale.Yet the relations between sediment transport and river morphol-
ogy have received only limited,qualitative attention.In this review,the problem is
studied by de fining sediment transport regimes on the basis of the Shields number,a
nondimensional measure of the capacity of the channel to move sediment of a given
caliber.The problem is also approached from an inverse perspective by which the
quantity and character of sediment deposits are used to infer details about the vari-
ation of sediment transport and sedimentation along a channel.Coupling the two
approaches establishes a basis to gain new insights into the origins of alluvial channel
morphology.
 
Church, M., et al. (1987). "Late Quaternary Paleohydrology of Canada." Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 26: 1809-1859.
Church, M. and M. A. Hassan (1992). "Size and distance of travel of unconstrained clasts on a streambed." Water Resources Research 28(1): 299-303.
Church, M. and M. A. Hassan (2002). "Mobility of bed material in Harris Creek." Water Resources Research 38(11): 10.1029/2001WR000753.
Church, M., et al. (1998). "Stabilizing self-organized structures in gravelbed stream channels: field and experimental observations." Water Resources Research 34(11): 3169-3179.
Church, M. and M. A. Hassen (1992). "Size and distance of travel of unconstrained clasts on a streambed." Water Resources Research 28(1): 299-303.
Church, M. and R. Kellerhals (1978). "On the statistics of grain size variation along a gravel river." Canadian Journal of Earth Science 15: 1151-1160.
Church, M. and J. M. Ryder (1972). "Paraglacial Sedimentation: A Consideration of Fluvial Processes Conditioned by Glaciation." Geological Society of America Bulletin 83: 3059-3072.
Church, M. and O. Slaymaker (1989). "Disequilibrium of Holocene sediment yield in glaciated British Columbia." Nature 337(2): 452-454.
Church, M. A., et al. (1987). River bed gravels: sampling and analysis. Sediment Transport in Gravel-bed Rivers. C. R. Thorne, J. C. Bathurst and R. D. Hey, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: 43-88.
The characterization of coarse bed material in rivers is difficult because the range of grain sizes is so wide that it is impractical to maintain a single method of measurement. Less obvious problems include the establishment of criteria for sample size, accounting for the layered nature of deposits and characterizing 'structural' features of the bed. The latter include imbrication, particle clustering and shadow deposits.
 
In this paper, standards for sample size in various measurement techniques are considered. Measurement methods are reviewed and the notion of 'truncated samples' is introduced as a means to overcome sample bias at the extremes of the size range. Replicability in sampling and analysis, fundamental desiderata for scientific measurements, are examined. Strategies are considered to achieve representative samples of satisfactory precision for various pruposes, and the problem posed by layers, particularly surface/subsurface contrasts, is introduced.
 
Because bed material samples are drawn from a very large and variable population, it is customary to interpret their meaning statistically. Since statistics is based upon number counts, this procedure may be applied within samples when individual clasts are measured: however, customary sieve procedures yield frequency by weight, which is not a well-conditioned statistical entity. Transformations are unhelpjul in practice since the numbers become absurdly large for small clasts. Strategies for interpreting these measurements are considered.
 
Cipra, B. (2000). "Revealing Uncertainties in Computer Models." Retrieved 6/6/00, 2000, from http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/287/5455/960.
Cissel, J. H., et al. A disturbance-based landscape plan for a managed forest ecosystem: the Augusta Creek Study.
Cissel, J. H., et al. (1999). "Landscape Management Using Historical Fire Regimes: Blue River, Oregon." Ecological Applications 9(4): 1217-1231.
Clapp, E. M., et al. "Using super(10)Be and super(26)Al to determine sediment generation rates and identify sediment source areas in an arid region drainage basin."
We measured super(10)Be and super(26)Al in 64 sediment and bedrock samples collected throughout the arid, 187 km super(2) Yuma Wash drainage basin, southwestern Arizona. From the measurements, we determine long-term, time-integrated rates of upland sediment generation (81 plus or minus 5 g m super(-2) year super(-1)) and bedrock equivalent lowering (30 plus or minus 2 m Ma super(-1)) consistent with other estimates for regions of similar climate, lithology, and topography. In a small ( similar to 8 km super(2)), upland sub-basin, differences in nuclide concentrations between bedrock outcrops and hillslope colluvium suggest weathering of bedrock beneath a colluvial cover is a more significant source of sediment (40 x 10 super(4) kg year super(-1)) than weathering of exposed bedrock surfaces (10 x 10 super(4) kg year super(-1)). Mixing models constructed from nuclide concentrations of sediment reservoirs identify important sediment source areas. Hillslope colluvium is the dominant sediment source to the upper reaches of the sub-basin channel; channel cutting of alluvial terraces is the dominant source in the lower reaches. Similarities in nuclide concentrations of various sediment reservoirs indicate short sediment storage times (< 10 super(3) years). Nuclide concentrations, measured in channel sediment from tributaries of Yuma Wash and in samples collected along the length of the Wash, were used to construct mixing models and determine sediment sources to the main stem channel. We find an exponential decrease in the channel nuclide concentrations with distance downstream, suggesting that as much as 40% of sediment discharged from Yuma Wash has been recycled from storage within basin fill alluvium. Sediment generation and denudation rates determined from the main stem are greater (25%) than rates determined from upland sub-basins suggesting that, currently, sediment may be exported from the basin more quickly than it is being generated in the uplands. Independence of nuclide concentration and sediment grain size indicates that channels transport sediment in discrete pulses before rapidly depositing poorly sorted material, suggesting that differences in transport times for different size materials are minimal.
 
Clark, J. S. (1989). "Ecological disturbance as a renewal process: theory and application to fire history." Oikos 56: 17-30.
Clarke, S. and K. Burnett (2003). "Comparison of digital elevation models for aquatic data development." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69(12): 1367-1375.
Clarke, S., et al. (2008). "Modeling streams and hydrogeomorphic attributes in Oregon from digital and field data." Journal of American Water Resources Association 44(2): 459-477.
Clarke, S. E., et al. (2008). "Modeling streams and hydrogeomorphic attributes in Oregon from digital and field data." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 44(2): 459-477.
Clarkson, R. W. and J. R. Wilson (1995). "Trout Biomass and Stream Habitat Relationships in the White Mountains Area, East-Central Arizona." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 124: 599-612.
Clarr, W. P., et al. (1993). Sediment Entrapment by Stream Channel Vegetation. Management of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, Park City, Utah.
Clary, W. P., et al. (1993). Sediment Entrapment by Stream Channel Vegetation. Management of Irrigation and Drainage Systems, Park City, Utah.
Clayton, J. L. and W. F. Megahan (1997). "Natural erosion rates and their prediction in the Idaho batholith." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33(3): 689-703.
Natural rates of surface erosion on forested granitic soils in central Idaho were measured in 40 m(2) bordered erosion plots over a period of four years. In addition, we measured a variety of site variables, son properties, and summer rainstorm intensities in order to relate erosion rates to site attributes. Median winter erosion rates are approximately twice summer period rates, however mean summer rates are nearly twice winter rates because of infrequent high erosion caused by summer rainstorms. Regression equation models and regression tree models were constructed to explore relationships between erosion and factors that control erosion rates. Ground cover is the single factor that has the greatest influence on erosion rates during both summer and winter periods. Rainstorm intensity (erosivity index) strongly influences summer erosion rates, even on soils with high ground cover percentages. Few summer storms were of sufficient duration and intensity to cause rilling on the plots, and the data set was too small to elucidate differences in rib vs. interrill erosion. The regression tree models are relatively less biased than the regression equations developed, and explained 70 and 84 percent of the variability in summer and winter erosion rates, respectively.
 
Cleland, D. T., et al. (1997). National hierarchical framework of ecological units. Ecosystem Management. M. S. B. a. A. Haney. New Haven, CT, Yale University: 361 p.
Clifton, H. E. Tips on talks or how to keep an audince attentive, alert, and around for the conclusions at a scientific meeting. American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Coates, R. and L. Collins (1984). Streamside landsliding and channel change in a suburban forested watershed: effects of an extreme event. Proceedings of Symposium on Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Sloppe Stability. Honolulu, East-West Center: 155-164.
Coats, R., et al. (1985). "Channel Change, Sediment Transport, and Fish Habitat in a Coastal Stream: Effects of an Extreme Event." Environmental Management 9(1): 35-48.
Cobourn, J. (1989). An application of cumulative watershed effects (CWE) analysis on the Eldorado National Forest in California. In Proceedings of the symposium on Headwaters Hydrology, Bethesda, MD, American Water Resources Association.
Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling Techniques. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Cochrane, T. A., and D.C. Flanagan (1999). "Assessing water erosion in small watersheds using WEPP with GIS and digital elevation models." Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 4: 678-685.
Cochrane, T. A., and D.C. Flanagan (2003). "Representative hillslope models for applying the WEPP model with DEMs and GIS." Transactions of the ASAE 46(4): 1041-1049.
Cochrane, T. A., and D.C. Flanagan (2005). "Effect of DEM resolutions in the runoff and soil loss predictions of the WEPP watershed model." Transactions of the ASAE 48(1): 109-120.
Coe, D. (2006). Sediment production and delivery from forest roads in the Sierra Nevada, CA.  M.S. thesis. Dept. of FRWS, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.
Coe, D. B., and L.H. MacDonald (2005). Road sediment production and delivery in the California Sierra Nevada. European Geophysical Union Meeting, Vienna, Austria.
Coe, J., et al. (2008). "Initiation conditions for debris flows generated by runoff at Chalk Cliffs, central Colorado." Geomorphology 96: 270-297.
We have monitored initiation conditions for six debris flows between May 2004 and July 2006 in a 0.3 km2 drainage basin at Chalk
Cliffs; a band of hydrothermally-altered quartz monzonite in central Colorado. Debris flows were initiated by water runoff from
colluvium and bedrock that entrained sediment from rills and channels with slopes ranging from about 14° to 45°. The availability of
channel material is essentially unlimited because of thick channel fill and refilling following debris flows by rock fall and dry ravel
processes. Rainfall exceeding I=6.61(D)−0.77, where I is rainfall intensity (mm/h), and D is duration (h), was required for the
initiation of debris flows in the drainage basin. The approximate minimum runoff discharge from the surface of bedrock required to
initiate debris flows in the channels was 0.15 m3/s. Colluvium in the basin was unsaturated immediately prior to (antecedent) and
during debris flows. Antecedent, volumetric moisture levels in colluvium at depths of 1 cmand 29 cm ranged from 4–9%, and 4–7%,
respectively. During debris flows, peak moisture levels in colluvium at depths of 1 cm and 29 cm ranged from 10–20%, and 4–12%,
respectively. Channel sediment at a depth of 45 cm was unsaturated before and during debris flows; antecedent moisture ranged from
20–22%, and peak moisture ranged from 24–38%. Although we have no measurements from shallow rill or channel sediment, we
infer that it was unsaturated before debris flows, and saturated by surface-water runoff during debris flows.
Our results allow us to make the following general statements with regard to debris flows generated by runoff in semi-arid to
arid mountainous regions: 1) high antecedent moisture levels in hillslope and channel sediment are not required for the initiation of
debris flows by runoff, 2) locations of entrainment of sediment by successive runoff events can vary within a basin as a function of
variations in the thickness of existing channel fill and the rate of replenishment of channel fill by rock fall and dry ravel processes
following debris flows, and 3) rainfall and simulated surface-water discharge thresholds can be useful in understanding and
predicting debris flows generated by runoff and sediment entrainment.
 
Coe, J. A., et al. (2004). Landslide susceptibility from topography in Guatemala. Landslides: Evaluation and Stabilization. W. Lacerda, M. Ehrlich, S. A. B. Fontoura and A. S. F. Sayao. London, England, Taylor & Francis Group: 69-78.
We present a landslide susceptibility map of a 980 sq. km area in east-central Guatemala that
was impacted by Hurricane Mitch in 1998. Susceptibility was based on a ratio between topographic parameters
at Mitch landslide DEM cells to those of a random sampling of DEM cells within the study area. Ratios
for four topographic parameters (elevation, slope angle, planform curvature, and aspect) were calculated, but
we found that two of these, a combination of elevation (a proxy for rainfall) and slope angle, best portrayed
landslide susceptibility. The map produced from these two parameters includes 80 percent of landslides initiated
by Mitch within susceptible zones, and classifies 71 percent of the study area as having no preferred susceptibility.
Seventy–five percent of pre-Mitch landslides, and 90 percent of post-Mitch landslides, also fall
within susceptible zones. Similar results probably could be expected for other geographic areas where there
is a correlation between elevation and rainfall accumulation.
 
Coffin, B. A. and R. D. Harr (1992). Effects on forest cover on colume of water delivery to soil during rain-on-snow. Seattle, Washington: 106.
Coghlan, M. (1984). A climatologically-based analysis of the storm and flood history of Redwood Creek. Arcata, California, Redwood National Park: 1-47.
Cogle, A. L., et al. (2003). "Testing the hillslope erosion model for application in India, New Zealand and Australia." Environmental Modelling & Software 18(8-9): 825-830.
Cohen, P., et al. (1998). "Towards a regionalization of aquatic habitat: distribution of mesohabitats at the scale of a large basin." Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 14: 391-404.
Cohen, W. B., et al. (in press). "Modeling forest cover attributes as continuous variables in a regional context with Thematic Mapper data." International Journal of Remote Sensing.
Cohen, W. B., et al. (2002). "Characterizing 23 years (1972-1995) of stand replacement disturbance in western Oregon forests with Landsat Imagery." Ecosystems 5: 122-137.
Coho, C. and S. J. Burges (1993). Dam-break floods in low-order mountain channels of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Washington: 68.
Colby, B. R. (1964). Scour and Fill in Sand-Bed Streams, US Geological Survey: 32.
Cole, M. B., et al. (2006). "Change in the upper extent of fish distribution in eastern Washington streams between 2001 and 2002." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135: 634-642.
The upper extent of fish distribution in streams has received increasing attention in recent years
because fish-bearing streams in the Pacific Northwest receive greater protection from timber harvest than do
non-fish-bearing waters. Significant amounts of time and funding have been spent surveying streams for the
upper extent of fish distribution and, more recently, in developing models that predict where fish use ends in
streams. The reliability of each approach rests in part on the assumption that the upper extent of fish
distribution can be accurately determined by a single survey and that fish distribution boundaries (FDBs) do
not shift appreciably through time. To examine changes in the upper extent of fish distribution, streams were
surveyed throughout 10 forested watersheds in eastern Washington in the summers of 2001 and 2002. In
2002, 308 FDBs were resurveyed. Resurveys resulted in the establishment of 172 terminal boundaries
(occurring mid-channel or at the confluence of two non-fish-bearing streams) and 136 lateral boundaries
(occurring where a non-fish-bearing channel laterally intersects a fish-bearing channel). The number of
terminal boundary changes was approximately evenly distributed among upstream shifts, no change, and
downstream shifts. Excluding two relatively large downstream shifts, the mean distance between 2002 and
2001 terminal boundaries was  2.5 m, which is not statistically or biologically significant. Terminal
boundaries most often occurred immediately below small impasses created by large woody debris. Of the 136
streams occurring above lateral boundaries in 2001, 134 were again found to support no fish. The upper extent
of fish distribution was similar between these 2 years, perhaps because of similar streamflows during the two
sampling sessions. The number of terminal-to-lateral boundary shifts equaled the estimated number of lateralto-
terminal boundary shifts, indicating that no net change in the use of small tributaries occurred between the
2 years.
 
 
Coleman, S. E. and B. W. Melville (1994). "Bed-Form Development." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 120(4): 544-560.
Collins, B. D. (1997). Effects of Land Use on the Stillaguamish River, Washington, -1870 to 1990: Implications for Salmonid Habitat and Water Quality and their Restoration. Seattle, Washington, report to the Tulalip Tribes Natural Resources Department, Snohomish County Department of Public Works, Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians, State of Washington Department of Ecology.
Collins, B. D. (1997). Effects of Land Use on the Stillaguamish River, Washington, ~1870 to ~1990: Implications for Salmonid Habitat and Water Quality and their Resotration, The Tulalip Tribes Natural Resources Department.
Collins, B. D., et al. (1994). Watershed assessment and salmonid habitat restoration strategy for Deer Creek, North Cascades of Washington. Seattle, Washington, 10,000 Years Institute.
Collins, B. D., et al. (1994). Watershed assessment and salmonid habitat restoration strategy for Deer Creek, North Cascades of Washington. Seattle, !0,000 Years Institute: 231.
Collins, B. D., et al. (1994). Watershed Assessment and Salmonid Habitat Restoration Strategy for Deer Creek, North Cascades of Washington. Seattle, Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians: 232.
Collins, B. D. and T. Dunne (1989). "Gravel Transport, Gravel Harvesting and Channel-Bed Degradation in Rivers Draining the Southern Olympic Mountains, Washington, U.S.A." Eniviron Geol Water Sci 13(3): 213-224.
Collins, B. D. and T. Dunne (1990). Fluvial Geomorphology and River-Gravel Mining: A Guide for Planners, Case Studies Included. Seattle, Washington, Department of Conservation: Division of Mines and Geology: 31.
Collins, B. D. and D. R. Montgomery (2001). Importance of archival and process studies to characterizing pre-settlement riverine geomorphic processes and habitat in the Puget Lowland. Geomorphic Processes and Riverine Habitat. J. M. Dorava, D. R. Montgomery, B. B. Palcsak and F. A. Fitzpatrick. Washington D.C., American Geophysical Union. Water Science and Application 4: 227-243.
Collins, B. D. and D. R. Montgomery (2002). "Forest development, wood jams and restoration of floodplain rivers in the Puget Lowland." Restoration Ecology 10(2): 237-247.
Collins, B. D., et al. (2002). "Historical changes in the distribution and functions of large wood in Puget Lowland rivers." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 59: 66-76.
Abstract: We examined changes in wood abundance and functions in Puget Lowland rivers from the last ~150 years of land use by comparing field data from an 11-km-long protected reach of the Nisqually River with field data from the Snohomish and Stillaguamish rivers and with archival data from several Puget Lowland rivers. Current wood abundance is one to two orders of magnitude less than before European settlement in the Snohomish and Stillaguamish basins. Most importantly, wood jams are now rare because of a lack of very large wood that can function as key pieces and low rates of wood recruitment. These changes in wood abundance and size appear to have fundamentally changed the morphology, dynamics, and habitat abundance and characteristics of lowland rivers across scales from channel unit to valley bottom. Based on our field studies, rivers had substantially more and deeper pools historically. Archival data and field studies indicate that wood jams were integral to creating and maintaining a dynamic, anastomosing river pattern
with numerous floodplain channels and abundant edge habitat and routed floodwaters and sediment onto floodplains. Establishing the condition of the riverine landscape before European settlement sets a reference against which to
evaluate contemporary conditions and develop restoration objectives.
 
Collins, B. D., et al. (2003). Reconstructing the Historical Riverine Landscape of the Puget Lowland. Restoration of Puget Sound Rivers. D. R. Montgomery, S. Bolton, D. B. Booth and L. Wall. Seattle, University of Washington Press: 79-128.
Collins, B. D. and G. R. Pess (1997). "Critique of Washington's Watershed Analysis Program." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33(5): 997-1010.
Collins, B. D. and G. R. Pess (1997). Critique of Washington's Watershed Analysis Program.
Collins, B. D. and G. R. Pess (1997). "Critique of Washington's Watershed Analysis Programs " Journal of American Water Resources Association 33(5): 997-1010.
Collins, B. D. and G. R. Pess (1997). "Evaluation of Forest Practices Prescriptions from Washington's Watershed Analysis Program." Journal of American Water Resources Association 33(5): 969-996.
Collins, B. D. and G. R. Pess (1997). Evaluation of Forest Practices Prescriptions from Washington's Watershed Analysis Program.
Colman, S. M. (1986). Levels of Time Information in Weathering Measurements, with Examples from Weathering Rinds on Volcanic Clasts in the Western United States. Rates of Chemical Weathering of Rocks and Minerals, Academic Press, Inc.: 379-393.
Colson, T. P. (2006). Stream network delineation from high-resolution digital elevation models. Forestry. Raleigh, North Carolina, North Carolina State University. PhD: 241.
Colson, T. P., et al. (2006). Comparison of stream extraction models using LiDAR DEMs. Geographic Information Systems and Water Resources IV, AWRA Spring Specialty Conference. Houston, Texas, AWRA: 7.
Columbia, P. o. B. (1996). "Terrain stability mapping in British Columbia." from http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/ric/PUBS/EARTHSCI/Terrain2/.
Combs, P. G., et al. (1977). "Application of Flow-Sediment Model to Red River." Journal of the Hydraulics Division 103(1): 11-18.
Conference Coordinating Committee (2000). Abstracts. International Conference on Wood in world Rivers, Corvallis, Oregon.
Conference Coordinating Committee (2000). Conference Program. Corvallis, Oregon, International Conference on Wood in World Rivers: 39.
Connelly, B. A. and T. W. Cundy (1992). Cumulative Effects of Forest Management on Peak Streamflows During Rain-on-Snow Events. Interdisciplinary Approaches in Hydrology and Hydrogeology. Seattle, Washinton, University of Washington: 470-484.
Connelly, J. H. (1978). "Diversity in Tropical Rain Forests and Coral Reefs." Science 199(24): 1302-1310.
Conrad, R. H., et al. (2003). The development and assessment of the preliminary model for identifying fish habitat in western Washington. Olympia, WA, Cooperative Monitoring Evaluation & Research: 150.
Conroy, W. J. and J. C. Barrett (2002). Controlling sediment erosion from forest roads in coastal watersheds. American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS, vol.02-1. J. R. Lesnik: 237-242.
The Pacific Lumber Company (PALCO) owns 225,000 acres of industrial timberlands in coastal Northern California watersheds that drain to tidal estuaries, or salt-water bays. During the development of its Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP), PALCO recognized that roads were an important management-related sediment source, a conclusion supported by subsequent watershed studies. Consequently, the HCP includes, and PALCO has instituted, a state-of-the-art road management plan for the 1500 miles of permanent and seasonal roads on its ownership. The road management plan includes numerous measures for controlling sediment inputs to watercourses: removal or repair of "at-risk" stream crossings, removal of unneeded roads, "storm-proofing" of all permanent roads, diversion of road drainage away from watercourses, reduction or elimination of wet-weather road use and construction, and the upgrading of all seasonal roads. Monitoring and assessment studies have been used to document the effectiveness of these approaches in limiting road-related sediment delivery to streams.
 
Cooke, R. U. D., J. C. (1990). Geomorphology In Environmental Management, Oxford Press.
Coombs, H. A. (1989). "The Baker Project." Engineering Geology in Washington 1: 174-186.
Cooney, T. and D. M. Holzer (2007). Interior Columbia Basin viability Criteria Review Draft 2007. Appendix C: habitat intrinsic potential analysis: 21.
Cooper, R. M. (2005). Estimation of peak discharges for rural, unregulated streams in western Oregon. Scientific Investigations Report. Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey: 134.
Cooperative Instream Flow Service Group (1982). A Guide to Stream Habitat Analysis Using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology, Fish and Wildlife Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Soil Conservation Service, Geological Survey: 163-169.
Corripio, J. G. (2003). "Vectorial algebra algorithms for calculating terrain parameters from DEMs and solar radiation modelling in mountainout terrain." Int. J. Geographical Information Science 17(1): 1-23.
Terrain parameters derived from digital elevation models (DEMs),
such as slope gradient, aspect and cell surface area, are represented as a vector
normal to the surface and calculated using the minimum areal unit of the DEM,
that is enclosed between four data points. The position of the Sun is calculated
by applying rotational matrices to a unit vector defined at noon as a function of
latitude and declination. The direct component of insolation intercepted by the
cell surface is then calculated as a dot product between the unit vector in the
direction of the Sun and the unit vector normal to surface, multiplied by direct
normal irradiation. Hillshading is computed by scanning the projection of cells
onto a solar illumination plane perpendicular to the Sun direction. Horizon angles
and estimated sky view factor are calculated using a more economical algorithm
than a rigorous evaluation of all the angles subtended by every grid cell to each
other. The performance of the slope algorithm is evaluated using a synthetic
surface and real world examples are given for the Mont Blanc Massif, in the
French Alps.
 
 
Costa, J. E. (1983). "Paleohydraulic reconstruction of flash-flood peaks from boulder deposits in the Colorado Front Range." Geological Society of America Bulletin 94: 986-1004.
Costa, J. E. (1983). The Physical Geomorphology of Debris Flows (DRAFT), University of Denver.
Costa, J. E. (1985). Floods from Dam Failures, U.S. Geological Survey: 1-54.
Costa, J. E. (1998). Flood Geomorphology. Rheologic, geomorphic, and sedimentologic differentiation of water floods, hyperconcentrated flows, and debris flows. V. R. Baker, R. C. Kochel and B. C. Patton, Wiley: 113-122.
Costa, J. E. and R. D. Jarrett (1981). "Debris Flows in Small Mountain Stream Channels of Colorado and their Hydrologic Implications." Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists 18(3): 309-322.
Costa, J. E. and R. L. Schuster (1988). "The formation and failure of natural dams." Geological Society of America Bulletin 100: 1054-1068.
Costa-Cabral, M. C., and S.J. Burges (1994). "Digital elevation model networks (DEMON): a model of flow over hillslopes for computation of contributing and dispersal areas." Water Resources Research 30(6): 1681-1692.
Costa-Cabral, M. C. and S. J. Burges (1994). "Digital elevation model networks (DEMON): A model of flow over hillslopes for computation of contributing and dispersal areas." Water Resources Research 30(6): 1681-1692.
Costantini, A., et al. "Sediment generation from forest roads: bed and eroded sediment size distributions, and runoff management strategies."
A rainfall simulator and overland flow study was conducted to determine in situ and eroded sediment size distributions for a range of forest road surfaces at 2 important commercial plantation centres in subtropical south-east Queensland, Australia; and parameters necessary for running the CREAMS model to assess erosion and sediment transport from road/table drain systems. Results revealed very low concentrations of fine particles in the surface of gravel roads, and somewhat higher proportions in ungravelled (dirt) road surfaces. However, there was considerable enrichment of fine particles in sediment eroded under simulated rain, with concentrations of particles <0.02 mm in diameter being up to 8 g/L. Table drains were generally resistant to scour by overland flows, with the only exception being a drain bordering a newly gravelled road. This drain was bare of vegetation and contained significant quantities of loose gravel from which the fine component was easily eroded. It demonstrated the need to construct both roads and table drains at the end of the wet season when consolidation and re-vegetation can occur under lighter rains during the dry season. CREAMS model runs for a 'standard' road and drain configuration predicted considerable enrichment of fine particles in sediment from all road surfaces. The major factor controlling predicted concentrations of fine particles was the rate of erosion from the road surface, with gravelled surfaces showing considerably less erosion than ungravelled surfaces. Because road surfaces will be significant sources of fine sediment during erosive rains, a second part of this study was designed to model whether hillslopes could be used to infiltrate runoff, thereby controlling sediment movement. For the modelled hillslopes - typical of those used to support commercial forest plantations in south-east Queensland - design runoffs from forest road turn-out drains could be infiltrated. It is suggested that forest managers use hillslope infiltration as the primary tool for managing flows and sediments from road turn-out drains, and that vegetative filter strips be used only as a secondary support tool.
 
Coulombe-Pontbriand, M. and M. F. Lapointe (2004). "Landscape controls on boulder-rich, winter habitat availability and their effects on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr abundance in two fifth-order mountain streams." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 61: 648-658.
We test the effect at river reach and segment scales of landscape controls on the distribution of Atlantic
salmon (Salmo salar) parr densities, as well as associated variations in boulder (diameter ≥ 256 mm) abundance and
potential overwintering habitat. This study encompasses data from 45 km of fifth-order mainstem channels along two
neighbouring river catchments in the Gaspé region, Québec. At both scales, winter habitat availability was correlated
with boulder availability. At the river segment scale (1–5 km), parr densities significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with
boulder availability along the Bonaventure River, which presented significant intersegment variations in boulder abundances.
In contrast, segment-scale boulder and parr abundances were uniformly low along the Petite Cascapédia River.
At the reach scale (600 m), positive but less strongly significant boulder – parr abundance correlations were observed
in both the Bonaventure and Petite Cascapédia rivers. Spatial variations in boulder abundances in these systems reflected
variations in the degree of channel to valley walls coupling and imposed channel formative shear stresses. In
similarly boulder-poor segments with comparable fry abundances, parr abundances were significantly greater along the
Bonaventure than the Petite Cascapédia River, possibly because of the presence in the former system of nearby
boulder-rich refugia segments.
 
Cox, N. J. (1980). "On the Relationship Between Bedrock Lowering and Regolith Thickness." Earth Surface Process and Landforms 5: 271-274.
Cox, N. J. (1989). "Review of "Biogeomorphology"." Progress of Physical Geography 13: 620-624.
Cox, N. J. (1992). Precipitation statistics for geomorphologists: Variations on a theme by Frank Ahnert. Functional Geomorphology. K. M. Schmidt and J. d. Ploey. Cremlingen-Destedt, Catena Verlag. Catena Supplement 23: 189-212.
Craft, C. B., et al. (1993). "Vertical Accretion in Microtidal Regularly and Irregularly Flooded Estuarine Marshes " Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 37: 371-386.
Crandell, D. R. (?). "The Glacial History of Western Washington and Oregon "?: 341-353.
Creque, S. M., et al. (2005). "Use of GIS-derived landscape-scale habitat features to explain spatial patterns of fish density in Michigan rivers." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 25: 1411-1425.
Both site- and landscape-scale processes play important roles in the biological communities
of rivers. Understanding the influences of these processes on fish abundance can help
direct management and research efforts toward appropriate habitat variables and scales. We used
multiple linear regression analysis of a regional fish and habitat database to determine the feasibility
of using geographical information systems (GIS)–derived landscape-scale habitat variables to
explain the spatial variation in the density of five sport fish species (Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha, steelhead O. mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and
white sucker Catostomus commersonii) in the rivers of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. We compared
these models with those developed using site-scale variables traditionally measured in the field.
Landscape-scale riverine habitat variables obtained through GIS analysis and modeling of catchment
characteristics accounted for 18–69% of the variation in fish density. Landscape estimates
of mean July water temperature were negatively correlated with the density of brook trout, brown
trout, and Chinook salmon. Drainage area was negatively correlated with the density of steelhead
and white suckers, and 90% exceedence flow yield (a measure of flow stability) was positively
correlated with the density of Chinook salmon and steelhead. Site-scale habitat variables explained
less (12–57%) of the variation in fish density than landscape-scale variables. In the site-scale
models, depth was negatively related to all species’ densities, and the percentage of soft substrates
was positively correlated only with white suckers. Although there was still much unexplained
variation in density, our models provide insight into key habitat variables that influence fish density
patterns on a large scale.
 
Crisp, D. T. (1993). "The ability of U.K. salmonid alevins to emerge through a sand layer " Journal of Fish Biology 43: 656-658.
Crisp, D. T. and P. A. Carling (1989). "Observations on siting, dimensions and structure of salmonid redds " J. Fish Biol. 34: 119-134.
Critchfield, W. B. (1985). "The late Quaternary history of lodgepole and jack pines." Review unknown: 749-772.
Croke, J., P. Hairsine,  and P. Fogarty (1999). "Runoff generation and redistribution in logged eucalytus forests, southeastern Australia." Journal of Hydrology 216: 55-77.
Croke, J., P. Hairsine,  and P. Fogarty (1999). "Sediment transport, redistribution and storage on logged forest hillslopes in south-eastern Australia." Hydrological Processes 13(17): 2705-2720.
Croke, J., and S. Mockler (2001). "Gully initiation and road-to-stream linkage in a forested catchment, southeastern Australia." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 205-217.
This study reports the nature of sediment delivery pathways and road-to-stream linkage in a forested catchment in southeastern Australia, and evaluates the causal factors associated with this linkage. Detailed field surveying of approximately 20 per cent of the 75 km road network reveals that 18 per cent of road drains show complete channel linkage via gully development from a road outlet to a stream. An additional 11 per cent of road drains show evidence of partial channel linkage where the gully does not extend the full hillslope length. Inclusion of the full range of road-to-stream linkage categories, including direct linkage at stream crossings, road bridges and fords, results in a 6 per cent increase in drainage density since initial road construction in 1964. The majority of this linkage is associated with relief culverts draining cut- and-fill roads in mid-valley positions. These drainage structures have contributing road lengths that are on average three times longer than those draining mitre drains on ridgetop roads. Runoff from these roads is also discharged onto hillslopes that are at least twice as steep as those used on ridgetop roads. Contributing road length (m) and the gradient of the discharge hillslope (tan theta ) are successfully used here in a linear discriminant analysis to separate channelled and non-channelled flow pathways within the catchment. The successful delineation of these pathways using two easily measured variables suggests that this approach has potential in the planning and rehabilitation of forest roads.
 
Croke, J., P. Hairsine, and P. Fogarty (2001). "Soil recovery from track construction and harvesting changes in surface infitration, erosion and delivery rates with time." Forest Ecology and Management 143: 3-12.
Croke, J., S. Mockler, P. Fogarty, and I. Takken (2005). "Sediment concentration changes in runoff pathways from a forest road network and the resultant spatial pattern of catchment connectivity." Geomorphology 68: 257-268.
Croke, J., and M. Nethery (2006). "Modelling runoff and soil erosion in logged forests: scope and application of some existing models." Catena 67: 35-49.
Croke, J., and P.B. Hairsine (2006). "Sediment delivery in managed forests: a review." Environmental Reviews 14: 59-87.
Croley, T. E. (2004). Spatially distributed model of interacting surface and groundwater storages. World Water and Environmental Resources Congress. June, 2004. Salt Lake City, UT Environmental Water Resources Institute, ASCE, Washington, DC.
Crookston, N. L. and G. E. Dixon (2005). "The forest vegetation simulator: a review of its structure, content, and applications." Computers and electronics in agriculture 49: 60-80.
The Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is a distance-independent, individual-tree forest growth
model widely used in the United States to support management decisionmaking. Stands are the
basic projection unit, but the spatial scope can be many thousands of stands. The temporal scope
is several hundred years at a resolution of 5–10 years. Projections start with a summary of current
conditions evident in the input inventory data. FVS contains a self-calibration feature that uses
measured growth rates to modify predictions for local conditions. Component models predict the
growth and mortality of individual trees, and extensions to the base model represent disturbance
agents including insects, pathogens, and fire. The component models differ depending on the
geographic region represented by regionally specific model variants. The differences are due to
data availability and the applicability of existing models. The model supports specification of
management rules in the input, such as thinning if density is too high. The rules can be extended
to represent other factors. For example, the effect of climate change on stand development
by entering rules that specify how growth and mortality will change in response to changing
climate.
Applications range from development of silvicultural prescription for single stands to landscape
and large regional assessments. Key issues addressed with FVS include forest development, wildlife
habitat, pest outbreaks, and fuels management. The predictions are used to gain insights into how
forested environments will respond to alternative management actions. Broad-scale forest management
policies have been studied with FVS.
For the 30 years since the model was initially introduced, the development team has anticipated and
provided needed enhancements and maintained a commitment toworking with and training users. The
existence of an adequate user interface and the continued use of the original programming language
are often overlooked factors for the success of this model.
Future work will focus on improving FVS by adopting recent biometric techniques and including
newinformation linking geomorphology to mortality and growth. Extending the model to more closely
represent biophysical processes and adapting the model so that it is more relevant to management
questions related to predicted climate change are also foci. Providing ways to dynamically link FVS
to other models is our current strategy for providing major new capabilities.
 
Crosta, G. B. and P. Frattini (2003). "distributed modelling of shallow landslides triggered by intense rainfall." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 3: 81-93.
Hazard assessment of shallow landslides represents
an important aspect of land management in mountainous
areas. Among all the methods proposed in the literature,
physically based methods are the only ones that explicitly includes
the dynamic factors that control landslide triggering
(rainfall pattern, land-use). For this reason, they allow forecasting
both the temporal and the spatial distribution of shallow
landslides. Physically based methods for shallow landslides
are based on the coupling of the infinite slope stability
analysis with hydrological models. Three different gridbased
distributed hydrological models are presented in this
paper: a steady state model, a transient “piston-flow” wetting
front model, and a transient diffusive model. A comparative
test of these models was performed to simulate landslide occurred
during a rainfall event (27–28 June 1997) that triggered
hundreds of shallow landslides within Lecco province
(central Southern Alps, Italy). In order to test the potential
for a completely distributed model for rainfall-triggered landslides,
radar detected rainfall intensity has been used. A new
procedure for quantitative evaluation of distributed model
performance is presented and used in this paper. The diffusive
model results in the best model for the simulation of
shallow landslide triggering after a rainfall event like the one
that we have analysed. Finally, radar data available for the
June 1997 event permitted greatly improving the simulation.
In particular, radar data allowed to explain the non-uniform
distribution of landslides within the study area.
 
Crouch, R. J. and T. Novruzi (1989). "Threshold conditions for rill initiation on a vertisol, Gunnedah, NSW, Australia." Catena 16(1): 101-110.
Crowe, W. P. a. J. (2003). "Surface-based transport model for mixed-size sediment." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering-ASCE 129(2): 120-128.
Crozier, M. J. (1999). "Prediction of rainfall-triggered landslides: A test of the antecedent water status model." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 24: 825-833.
Crozier, M. J., et al. (1990). "Relative instability of colluvium-filled bedrock depressions." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 15: 329 - 339.
Cruden, D. M., et al. (1993). "The landslide dam on the Saddle River near Rycroft, Alberta." Can. Geotech. J. 30: 1003-1015.
Cruden, D. M., et al. (1997). "The 1939 Montagneuse River landslide, Alberta." Can. Geotech. J. 34: 799-810.
Cruden, D. M. and S. Thomson (1997). "The 1939 Montagneuse River landslide, Alberta." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 34: 799-810.
Cruden, D. M. and D. J. Varnes (1996). Landslide types and processes. Landslides Investigation and Mitigation. A. K. Turner and R. L. Schuster. Washington, D.C., National Academy Press: 36-75.
Cui, Y., et al. (2003). "Sediment pulses in mountain rivers: 1. Experiments." Water Resources Research 39(9): 1239.
Cui, Y., et al. (2003). "Sediment pulses in mountain rivers: 2. Comparison between experiments and numerical predictions." Water Resources Research 39(9).
Mountain rivers in particular are prone to sediment input in the form of pulses
rather than a more continuous supply. These pulses often enter in the form of landslides
from adjacent hillslopes or debris flows from steeper tributaries. The activities of
humans such as timber harvesting, road building, and urban development can increase the
frequency of sediment pulses. The question as to how mountain rivers accommodate
pulses of sediment thus becomes of practical as well as academic significance. In part 1
[Cui et al., 2003], the results of three laboratory experiments on sediment pulses are
reported. It was found there that the pulses were eliminated from the flume
predominantly by dispersion of the topographic high. Significant translation was
observed only when the pulse material was substantially finer than the ambient load in
the river. Here the laboratory data are used to test a numerical model originally devised
for predicting the evolution of sediment pulses in field-scale gravel bed streams. The
model successfully reproduces the predominantly dispersive deformation of the
experimental pulses. Rates of dispersion are generally underestimated, largely because
bed load transport rates are underestimated by the transport equation used in the
model. The model reproduces the experimental data best when the pulse is significantly
coarser than the ambient sediment. In this case, the model successfully predicts the
formation and downstream progradation of a delta that formed in the backwater zone of
the pulse in run 3. The performance of the model is less successful when the pulse is
composed primarily of sand. This is likely because the bed load equation used in the
study is specifically designed for gravel. When the model is adapted to conditions
characteristic of large, sand bed rivers with low Froude numbers, it predicts substantial
translation of pulses as well as dispersion.
 
Culling, W. E. H. (1986). "Equifinality: modern approaches to dynamical systems and their potential for geographical thought." Trans. Instr. Br. Geogr. N.S. 12: 57-72.
Cummans, J. E., et al. (1975). Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Washington. Tacoma, Washington, US Geological Survey: 14-20.
Cupp, C. E. (2005). Water typing model field performance assessment pilot study. Olympia, Cooperative Monitoring Evaluation & Research: 21.
Curry, R. (?). "Coupling Marine and Terrestrial Wateshed Processes ". Retrieved 10/12/98, 1998, from http://color.mlml.calstate.edu/www/mbnms/docs92/sympcurr.htm.
Curry, R. R. (1966). "Observation of Alpine Mudflows in the Tenmile Range, Central Colorado." Geological Society of America Bulletin 77: 771-776.
Czarnomski, N. M., et al. (2008). "Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38: 2236-2248.
We develop and test a conceptual model of wood dynamics in stream networks that
considers legacies of forest management practices, floods, and debris flows. We
combine an observational study of wood in 25 km of 2nd- through 5th-order
streams in a steep, forested watershed of the western Cascade Range of Oregon
with whole-network studies of forest cutting, roads, and geomorphic processes
over the preceding 50 years. Statistical and simple mass balance analyses show
that natural process and forest management effects on wood input, transport
processes, and decomposition account for observed patterns of wood in the stream
network. Forest practices reduced wood amounts throughout the network; in
headwater streams these effects are fixed in stream segments bordered by cuts
and roads, but in larger channels they are diffused along the channel by fluvial
transport of wood. Landforms and roads limited delivery of wood by debris flows
to mainstern channels. Network dynamics studies and watershed management plans
should include spatial patterns of debris flow initiation and runout, flood
redistribution, and reduction of wood in the network by forest cutting and
intentional wood removal from channels on time scales of forest succession and
recurrence of major floods.
 
Dade, W. B. (2000). "Grain size, sediment transport and alluvial channel pattern " Geomorphology 35: 119-126.
Dade, W. B. and P. F. Friend (1998). "Grain-Size Sediment-Transport Regime, and Channel Slope in Alluvial Rivers." The Journal of Geology 106: 661-675.
Dahlström, N., et al. (2005). "Long-term dynamics of large woody debris in a managed boreal forest stream." Forest Ecology and Management 210: 363-373.
Little is known about how past forest management in Sweden influenced the quantity and quality of large woody debris
(LWD) in streams. The present study provides information of the long-term dynamics of LWD in a reach of a boreal stream
intersecting a managed forest. Dendrochronological methods were used to reconstruct mortality years of the pieces of LWD and
the general history of fire and cuttings of the surrounding riparian forest. Today, spruce dominates among the living trees,
whereas the LWD is dominated by birch in the forest and by pine in the stream. Fire frequency prior to active fire suppression was
similar to values reported from boreal forests. Pine trees were more abundant in the riparian forest before selective logging
operations and active fire suppression began in the 1800s. Many of the pieces of LWD found in the stream today died more than
200 years ago and derived from a cohort of pines that generated in the early 1600s. Pine LWD in stream channels is highly
resistant to decomposition and can reside for more than 300 years. A substantial amount of the LWD found today in managed
forest streams in boreal Sweden most likely derives from the time before extensive human influence and is likely to decrease
further in the future. Management of riparian forests to ascertain future supply of long-lived LWD in streams should target to
increase the proportion of pine trees.
 
Dai, F. C. and C. F. Lee (2001). "Terrain-based mapping of landslide susceptibility using a geographical information system: a case study." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 38: 911-923.
This paper deals with the development of a technique for mapping landslide susceptibility using a geographical information system (GIS), with particular reference to landslides on natural terrain. The method has been applied to Lantau Island, the largest outlying island within the territory of Hong Kong. Landslide susceptibility in the study area is related to a number of terrain variables, viz., lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, land cover, and distance to drainage line. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was carried out to generate the principal axes that are linear combinations of these terrain variables using occurrence data of landslides and terrain variables. A GIS is used to project the values of the principal axes, and subsequently to relate these principal axes to landslide susceptibility by logistic regression modeling. The spatial landslide susceptibility response in the study area can then be obtained by applying this logistic regression model to the study area. The results from this study indicate that such a GIS-based model is useful and suitable for the scale adopted in this study.
 
Daily, G. C. and P. R. Ehrlich (1999). "Managing Earth's Ecosystems: An Interdisciplinary Challenge." Ecosystems 2: 277-280.
Daly, C., R.P.Neilson, and D.L. Phillips (1994). "A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain." Journal of Applied Meteorology 33: 140-160.
Daly, C., et al. (2008). "Physiographically sensitive mapping of climatological temperature and precipitation acroos the conterminous United States." International Journal of Climatology.
Spatial climate data sets of 1971–2000 mean monthly precipitation and minimum and maximum temperature
were developed for the conterminous United States. These 30-arcsec (∼800-m) grids are the official spatial climate data
sets of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The PRISM (Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model)
interpolation method was used to develop data sets that reflected, as closely as possible, the current state of knowledge of
spatial climate patterns in the United States. PRISM calculates a climate–elevation regression for each digital elevation
model (DEM) grid cell, and stations entering the regression are assigned weights based primarily on the physiographic
similarity of the station to the grid cell. Factors considered are location, elevation, coastal proximity, topographic facet
orientation, vertical atmospheric layer, topographic position, and orographic effectiveness of the terrain. Surface stations
used in the analysis numbered nearly 13 000 for precipitation and 10 000 for temperature. Station data were spatially quality
controlled, and short-period-of-record averages adjusted to better reflect the 1971–2000 period.
PRISM interpolation uncertainties were estimated with cross-validation (C-V) mean absolute error (MAE) and the 70%
prediction interval of the climate–elevation regression function. The two measures were not well correlated at the point
level, but were similar when averaged over large regions. The PRISM data set was compared with the WorldClim and
Daymet spatial climate data sets. The comparison demonstrated that using a relatively dense station data set and the
physiographically sensitive PRISM interpolation process resulted in substantially improved climate grids over those of
WorldClim and Daymet. The improvement varied, however, depending on the complexity of the region. Mountainous and
coastal areas of the western United States, characterized by sparse data coverage, large elevation gradients, rain shadows,
inversions, cold air drainage, and coastal effects, showed the greatest improvement. The PRISM data set benefited from a
peer review procedure that incorporated local knowledge and data into the development process. Copyright  2008 Royal
Meteorological Society
 
 
Daly, C., et al. (1994). "A statistical-topographic model for mapping climatological precipitation over mountainous terrain." Journal of Applied Meteorology 33: 140-158.
Das, B. M. (2001). Slope Stability. Principles of Geotechnical Engineering. Boston, PWS Engineering: 429-487.
Davey, C. and M. Lapointe (2007). "Sedimentary links and the spatial organization of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spawning habitat in a Canadian Shield river." Geomorphology 83: 82-96.
The segmenting of gravel-bed rivers flowing through mountain valleys into a number of discrete ‘sedimentary links’, each
characterized by downstream fining of alluvium, is a relatively recent concept which offers promise to model the large-scale spatial
organisation of many types of aquatic habitat (reproductive, feeding, refuge, etc), strongly dependent on dominant bed sediment
calibre. Although, so far, the ecological application of the concept has mainly focused on benthic invertebrates, here we illustrate its
application to fish (Atlantic salmon; Salmo salar). Moreover, the link concept has also been primarily applied to alpine river
environments where link formation is triggered by point sources (mainly tributaries) supplying coarser sediment. However,
somewhat lower relief, mountain valley landscapes of North Eastern Canada are often structured into sedimentary links triggered
by non-point, ‘supply zones’ of coarse sediments, originating in bedrock canyon reaches or valley bottom deposits of glacial drift.
Here, we propose an adaptation and extension of the original, sedimentary link concept to such landscapes and test its utility along
one such system, the Ste Marguerite River (SMR), a salmon river draining the Canadian Shield in the Saguenay region of Québec.
We first discuss a simple field and office based method of link delineation. Then we discuss potential sources of minor, sublink
scale grain size variability and their effects on how sedimentary links are defined. Lastly, we demonstrate the usefulness of the link
structure to model the distribution of Atlantic salmon spawning habitat (a habitat that depends critically on bed texture). Our results
indicate that a revised sedimentary link typology is needed to describe longitudinal grain size patterns where non-point, valleysegment
scale sources of coarse sediment are important and that consideration of the research purpose and scale is important in
defining meaningful link units. We also show that salmon spawning zones can be directly predicted from the link structure: along
the SMR, spawning activity is apportioned within each of the discrete links, in those sub-zones where surface sediment size and
sand content are optimal for reproduction.
 
Davies, J. R., et al. (2007). "Modeling stream channel characteristics from drainage-enforced DEMs in Puget Sound, Washington, USA." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(2): 414-426.
Mapping stream channels and their geomorphic attributes is an important step in many watershed
research and management projects. Often insufficient field data exist to map hydromorphologic attributes across
entire drainage basins, necessitating the application of hydrologic modeling tools to digital elevation models
(DEMs) via a geographic information system (GIS). In this article, we demonstrate methods for deriving synthetic
stream networks via GIS across large and diverse basins using drainage-enforced DEMs, along with techniques
for estimating channel widths and gradient on the reach scale. The two-step drainage enforcement
method we used produced synthetic stream networks that displayed a high degree of positional accuracy relative
to the input streams. The accuracies of our estimated channel parameters were assessed with field data, and
predictions of bankfull width, wetted width and gradient were strongly correlated with measured values
(r2 = 0.92, r2 = 0.95, r2 = 0.88, respectively). Classification accuracies of binned channel attributes were also
high. Our methodology allows for the relatively rapid mapping of stream channels and associated morphological
attributes across large geographic areas. Although initially developed to provide salmon recovery planners with
important salmon habitat information, we suggest these methodologies are relevant to a variety of research and
management questions.
 
Davies, T. R. H. (1987). Problems of bed load transport in braided gravel-bed rivers. Sediment Transport in Gravel-bed (this the right source, or not full?). C. R. Thorne, J. C. Bathurst and R. D. Hey, John Wiley & Son Ltd.: 793-827.
Davies-Colley, R. J., et al. (2009). "Modelling the time course of shade, temperature, and wood recovery in streams with riparian forest restoration." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 673-688.
Action is increasingly being taken in
New Zealand and elsewhere to restore ecological
function to streams through planting of riparian
zones. We used simulation modelling to explore the
relative performance of three strategies to restore
the riparian zone of a pastoral stream to native
forest by: (1) passive regeneration; (2) planting
then abandonment of a Pinus radiata plantation;
and (3) active restoration by planting selected native
trees. We linked the forest model LI NKNZ with a
shade and temperature model (sWAIO RA), and a
wood model (OSU_STREA MWOO D) to simulate
recovery trajectories for key forest stream attributes
in hypothetical streams (1.3–14.0 m channel width)
in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both
active restoration strategies outperformed passive
regeneration in shade, temperature and stream wood
volume for most of the simulation time (800 years).
Although the abandoned pine plantation provided
greatest shade initially (<100 years), active native
planting provided the greatest benefits overall. In
general, recovery of stream shade (and temperature) is
expected within decades, is accelerated by deliberate
planting, and is fastest in small streams in which
thermal stress from sunlight exposure is greatest.
However, full recovery of stream and riparian function
may take centuries, being dependent on large trees
providing wood to structure the channel.
 
Davison, A. C. and D. V. Hinkley (1997). Bootstrap Methods and Their Application. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Dawson, C. W., M.R.Brown, and R.L.Wilby (2000). "Inductive learning approaches to rainfall-runoff modelling." International Journal of Neural Systems 10(1): 43-57.
Dawson, C. W. a. R. L. W. (2001). "Hydrological modelling using artificial neural networks." Progress  in Physical Geography 25(1): 80-108.
de Boer, D. H. (1992). "Hierarchies and spatial scale in process geomorphology: a review." Geomorphology 4: 303-318.
De Groot, J. D., et al. (2007). "Effects of logging second-growth forests on headwater populations of coastal cutthroat trout: a 6-year, multistream, before-and-after field experiment." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136: 211-226.
To understand how logging of second-growth forests affects populations of coastal cutthroat
trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii, we examined trout relative abundance, body condition (mass relative to
length), and physical and thermal habitat in the summer and winter in four headwater streams (two treatment
streams and two nonlogged control streams) over a 6-year period (2 years prelogging [1997–1998] and 4
years postlogging [1999–2002]). This is one of the first efforts to conduct a multiyear, replicated stream,
before-and-after experiment on this scale to assess the effects of logging on fish and habitat. In the treatment
streams, 21% of the watershed area was logged by clear-cutting (no scarification or slash-burning). Careful
logging approaches were employed to remove most of the riparian overstory (i.e., no machines were used
within 5 m of stream, logs were felled and yarded away from riparian zones, all shrubs were left behind, and
large wood was left in streams). Because a cooler summer climate occurred coincidentally with our
postlogging period (the mean daily average summer air temperature was 1–28C cooler than the temperature
during the prelogging period), the mean average and mean maximum daily stream temperatures declined after
the logging period in the control streams and remained the same in the treatment streams. After accounting for
the effects of climate, logging had warmed treatment streams by about 18C. We could not detect any logging
treatment effects on summer or winter relative abundance or condition, nor were any changes evident to
instream physical habitat associated with the logging treatment. These results were probably attributable to the
careful logging approaches employed and the cooler climate that occurred during the postlogging period.
 
de la Rosa, D., F. Mayol, J.A.Moreno, T. Bonson, and S. Lozano. (1999). "An expert system/neural network model (ImpelERO) for evaluating agricultural soil erosion in Andalucia region, Southern Spain." Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 73(1999): 211-226.
de Lugt, J. and I. A. Campbell (1992). Mass movements in the badlands of Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta, Canada. Functional Geomorphology. K. H. Schmidt and J. de Ploey. Cremlingen, Catena Verlag. Catena Supplement 23: 75-100.
De Roo, A. P. J. (2000). Modelling runoff and sediment transport in catchments using GIS. In Hydrological Applications of GIS. A. M. G. a. D. R. M. (editors). Wiley, England 176p.
De'ath, G., and K.E. Fabricius (2000). "Classification and regression trees: a powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis." Ecology 81(11): 3178-3198.
De'ath, G. (2002). "Multivariate regression trees: a new technique for modeling species-environment relationships." Ecology 83(4): 1105-1117.
Multivariate regression trees (MRT) are a new statistical technique that can
be used to explore, describe, and predict relationships between multispecies data and environmental
characteristics. MRT forms clusters of sites by repeated splitting of the data,
with each split defined by a simple rule based on environmental values. The splits are
chosen to minimize the dissimilarity of sites within clusters. The measure of species dissimilarity
can be selected by the user, and hence MRT can be used to relate any aspect of
species composition to environmental data. The clusters and their dependence on the environmental
data are represented graphically by a tree. Each cluster also represents a species
assemblage, and its environmental values define its associated habitat. MRT can be used
to analyze complex ecological data that may include imbalance, missing values, nonlinear
relationships between variables, and high-order interactions. They can also predict species
composition at sites for which only environmental data are available. MRT is compared
with redundancy analysis and canonical correspondence analysis using simulated data and
a field data set.
 
De'ath, G. (2007). "Boosted trees for ecological modeling and prediction." Ecology 88(1): 243-251.
Accurate prediction and explanation are fundamental objectives of statistical analysis, yet they seldom coincide. Boosted trees are a statistical learning method that attains both of these objectives for regression and classification analyses. They can deal with many types of response variables (numeric, categorical, and censored), loss functions (Gaussian, binomial, Poisson, and robust), and predictors (numeric, categorical). Interactions between predictors can also be quantified and visualized. The theory underpinning boosted trees is presented, together with interpretive techniques. A new form of boosted trees, namely, “aggregated boosted trees” (ABT), is proposed and, in a simulation study, is shown to reduce prediction error relative to boosted trees. A regression data set is analyzed using ABT to illustrate the technique and to compare it with other methods, including boosted trees, bagged trees, random forests, and generalized additive models. A software package for ABT analysis using the R software environment is included in the Appendices together with worked examples.
 
De'ath, G. and K. E. Fabricius (2000). "Classification and regression trees: a powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis." Ecology 81(11): 3178-3192.
Classification and regression trees are ideally suited for the analysis of complex
ecological data. For such data, we require flexible and robust analytical methods,
which can deal with nonlinear relationships, high-order interactions, and missing values.
Despite such difficulties, the methods should be simple to understand and give easily
interpretable results. Trees explain variation of a single response variable by repeatedly
splitting the data into more homogeneous groups, using combinations of explanatory variables
that may be categorical and/or numeric. Each group is characterized by a typical
value of the response variable, the number of observations in the group, and the values of
the explanatory variables that define it. The tree is represented graphically, and this aids
exploration and understanding.
Trees can be used for interactive exploration and for description and prediction of
patterns and processes. Advantages of trees include: (1) the flexibility to handle a broad
range of response types, including numeric, categorical, ratings, and survival data; (2)
invariance to monotonic transformations of the explanatory variables; (3) ease and robustness
of construction; (4) ease of interpretation; and (5) the ability to handle missing
values in both response and explanatory variables. Thus, trees complement or represent an
alternative to many traditional statistical techniques, including multiple regression, analysis
of variance, logistic regression, log-linear models, linear discriminant analysis, and survival
models.
We use classification and regression trees to analyze survey data from the Australian
central Great Barrier Reef, comprising abundances of soft coral taxa (Cnidaria: Octocorallia)
and physical and spatial environmental information. Regression tree analyses showed that
dense aggregations, typically formed by three taxa, were restricted to distinct habitat types,
each of which was defined by combinations of 3–4 environmental variables. The habitat
definitions were consistent with known experimental findings on the nutrition of these taxa.
When used separately, physical and spatial variables were similarly strong predictors of
abundances and lost little in comparison with their joint use. The spatial variables are thus
effective surrogates for the physical variables in this extensive reef complex, where information
on the physical environment is often not available.
Finally, we compare the use of regression trees and linear models for the analysis of
these data and show how linear models fail to find patterns uncovered by the trees.
 
DeBano, L. (1981). Water repellent soils: a state of the art. USDA Forest Service GTR-PSW-46. USDA Forest Service GTR-PSW-46, Berkely, California: 21pp.
DeBano, L. (2000). Fire-induced water repellency: an erosional factor in wildland environments. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-13, P.307-310.
DeBano, L. F., R.M. Rice, and C.E. Conrad (1979). Soil heating in chaparral fires: effects on soil properties, plant nutrients, erosion, and runoff. P. S. R. S. USDA Forest Service, RP-PSW-145 21p.
DeBano, L. F. (1981). Water Repellent Soils: a state of the art. General Technical Report, U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. PSW-46: 21.
Delfino, K. L. (1986). "Landscape Patterns."
Delmas, R. J. (?). "Climatic and Environmental Information from Ice Cores."
Dengler, L., et al. (1987). Bedrock geometry of unchannelized valleys. B. e. a. Beschta. Corvallis, Oregon, IAHS. 165: 81-90.
Dengler, L., et al. (1987). Bedrock geometry of unchannelized valleys. Erosion and Sedimentation in the Pacific Rim. B. Beschta, T. Blinn, G. E. Grant, G. G. Ice and F. J. Swanson. Washington, D.C., IAHS Press. 165: 81-90.
Dengler, L. and D. R. Montgomery (1989). "Estimating the Thickness of Colluvial Fill in Unchanneled Valleys from Surface Topography." Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists 26(3): 333-342.
Denlinger, R. P. and R. M. Iverson (2001). "Flow of variably fluidized granular masses across three-dimensional terrain, 2, Numerical predictions and experimental tests." Journal of Geophysical Research 106(B1): 553-566.
Densmore, A. L. a. N. H. (2000). "Topographic fingerprints of bedrock landslides." Geology 28(4): 371-374.
Deschênes, J., et al. (2007). "Context-dependent responses of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to forestry activities at multiple spatial scales within a river basin." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 64: 1069-1079.
We used classification trees and regression trees to relate the incidence and density of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to forestry activities measured at four spatial scales (subbasin and 8, 2, and 0.5 km radii up-stream of study sites) and environmental features in 120 stream reaches of the Cascapedia River basin, Quebec, Canada. At all scales, incidence increased with reach size and accessibility to the reach from the river mainstem. Incidence declined with areal coverage of logging at all scales, but only in larger reaches. The time horizon over which logging effects were detected increased with spatial scale. At all scales, density in salmon-bearing reaches increased with accessibility. Density in more accessible reaches was negatively related to logging over the preceding 9 years at the subbasin and 8 km scales, but no effects of logging on density were detected at the 2 and 0.5 km scales. Overall, apparent effects of logging activities on salmon incidence and density were mostly negative and strong, but were both markedly scale-dependent and conditional on environmental context.
 
Desmet, P. J. J., J. Poesen, G.Govers, and K.Vandaele (1999). "Importance of slope gradient and contributing area for optimal prediction of the initiation of ephemeral gullies." Catena 37: 377-392.
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DeVries, P., et al. (2001). "Measurement of the temporal progression of scour in a pool-riffle sequence in a gravel bed stream using an electronic scour monitor." Water Resources Research 37(11): 2805-2816.
DeVries, P. E. (1997). "Riverine salmonid egg burial depths: review of published data and implications for scour studies " Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 1685-1698.
DeVries, P. E. (2000). Scour in Low Gradient Gravel Streams: Patterns, Processes, and Implications for the Survival of Salmonid Embryos University of Washington: 250.
DeVries, P. E. (2000). Scour Processes and Pre-emergent Survival of Salmonids in Gravel Bed Streams Seattle, Washington, University of Washington: 44.
DeVries, P. E. (2002). "Bedload Layer Thickness and Disturbance Depth in Gravel Bed Streams " Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 128(11): 983-991.
DeVries, P. E., et al. (2001). "Measurement of the temporal progression of scour in a pool-riffle sequence in a gravel bed stream using an electronic scour monitor " Water Resources Research 37(11): 2805-2816.
Dewberry, C., et al. (1998). The Effects of the Storms of 1996 on a Creek Restoration Project in Oregon, University of Wisconsin: 174-180.
Dewberry, C., et al. (?). The Effects of the Storms of 1996 on Anadromous Fish-Bearing Reaches in the Knowles Creek Watershed, prepared for John Hancock Timber Management Group, Pacific Rivers Council, US Forest Service: 16.
Dhakal, A. S., and R.C.Sidle (2003). "Long-term modelling of landslides for different forest management practices." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(853-868).
Dhakal, A. S. and R. C. Sidle (2004). "Pore water pressure assessment in a forest watershed: Simulations and distributed field measurements related to forest practices." Water Resources Research 40.
A distributed shallow groundwater model related to slope stability is described to
assess the spatial distribution of pore water pressure in steep forested terrain in British
Columbia. Additionally, effects of timber harvesting and roads on measured changes in
pressure head during rainstorms were evaluated for the first time to assess the need for
incorporating different hydrological components in the event-driven distributed model.
Although explicit spatial quantification of pore water pressure requires many
measurements for accurate prediction, model performance using average parameter values
was reasonable when compared with pressure heads measured at nine spatially distributed
sites. Increases in maximum pressure head (varying from 9 to 28 cm) between
preharvesting (after road construction) and postharvesting rainstorm events were observed
in seven of nine sites. The remaining two sites showed either a small decrease ( 5 cm) or
similar peak pressure heads following harvesting. Peak pressure head evaluated at one
piezometer located 46 m downslope of the road decreased substantially ( 50 cm) after
road construction during moderate rainstorms and then recovered following harvesting.
Piezometric responses in sites upslope of the road were not affected by road construction
but did increase after harvesting. Moderate storms caused the largest relative increases in
pressure head between preharvesting (after roads) and postharvesting conditions; such
increases were small during large storms, lending support to the idea that timber
harvesting in temperate forests enhances hydrologic response only during small and
moderate storms. Since landslides in coastal Pacific Northwest are typically caused by
large winter rainstorms, it appears more justified to include better spatial representation of
soil physical and engineering parameters in the distributed shallow groundwater model
compared to specifying evapotranspiration; road hydrology may, however, need to be
included.
 
Di Stefano, C. and V. Ferro (2002). "Linking clay enrichment and sediment delivery processes." Biosystems Engineering 81(4): 465-479.
Di Stefano, C., et al. (2000). "Length slope factors for applying the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation at basin scale in southern Italy." Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 75(4): 349-364.
Diaz, G. E. and T. C. Brown (1997). AQUARIUS: A Modeling System for River Basin Water Allocation. Fort Collins, Colorado, US Forest Service: 160.
Dieterich, M. and N. H. Anderson (1998). "Dynamics of abiotic parameters, solute removal and sediment retention in summer-dry headwater streams of western Oregon." Hydrobiologia 379: 1-15.
Dietrich C.R., T. R. G., and A.J. Jakeman (1999). "An analytical model for stream sediment transport: application to Murray and Murrumbidgee river reaches, Australia." Hydrological Processes 13: 763-776.
Dietrich, W. E., D. Bellugi, and R.R. de Asua (2001). Validation of the shallow landslide model, SHALSTAB for forest management. Land Use and Watersheds: Human Influence on Hydrology and Geomorphology in Urban and Forest Areas. 2: 195-227.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (2001). Validation of the Shallow Landslide Model, SHALSTAB, for Forest Management. Land Use and Watersheds. M. S. Wigmosta and S. J. Burges. Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union: 195 - 227.
Dietrich, W. E. and R. Dorn (1984). "Signifigance of thick deposits of colluvium on hillslopes: a case study involving the use of pollen analysis in the coastal mountains of Northern California." Journal of Geology 92: 147-156.
Dietrich, W. E. and T. Dunne (1978). "Sediment budget for a small catchement mountainous terrain." Zietshrift fur Geomorphologie: 191-206.
Dietrich, W. E. and T. Dunne (1978). "Sediment budget for a small catchment in mountainous terrain." Zietshrift fur Geomorphologie Suppl. Bd. 29: 191-206.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1982). Construction of Sediment Budgets for Drainage Basins Sediment Budgets and Routing in Forested Drainage Basins: Proceedings of the Symposium, Corvallis, Oregon.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (?). Construction of Sediment Budgets for Drainage Basins: 5-22.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1989). "Sediment supply and the development of the coarse surface layer in gravel-bedded rivers." Nature 340: 215-217.
Dietrich, W. E. and D. R. Montgomery (1998). SHALSTAB: A digital terrain model for mapping shallow landslide potential, to be published by NCASI.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1995). "A process-based model for colluvial soil depth and shallow landsliding using digital elevation data." Hydrological Processes 9: 383-400.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1987). Overview: "Zero-order basins" and problems of drainage density, sediment trasport and hillslope morphology. Erosion and Sedimentation in the Pacific Rim, Corvalilis, OR, International Association of Hydrological Sciences.
Dietrich, W. E. and J. D. Smith (1984). "Bed Load Transport in a River Meander " Water Resources Research 20(10): 1355-1380.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1979). "Flow and Sediment Transport in a Sand Bedded Meander " Journal of Geology 87: 305-315.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1993). "Analysis of erosion thresholds, channel networks, and landscape morphology using a digital terrain model." Journal of Geology 101: 259-278.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1992). "Erosion thresholds and land surface morphology." Geology 20: 675-679.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1986). Hollows, colluvium, and landslides in soil-mantled landscapes. Hillslope Processes, Allen and Unwin. A. D. Abrahams. London: 361-388.
Dietrich, W. E., et al. (1990). Hollows, colluvium, and landslides in soil-mantled landscapes. Hillslope Processes, 16th Annual Geomorphology Symposium, Allen and Unwin Ltd.
Dietrich, W. R., J.W. Kirchner, H. Ikeda, and F. Iseya (1989). "Sediment supply and the development of the coarse surface layer in gravel-bedded rivers." Nature, Letters to 340: 215-217.
Diez, J. C., B. Alvera, J. Puigdefabregas, and F. Gallart (1988). Assessing sediment sources in a small drainage basin above timberline in the Pyrenees. Sediment Budgets: Proceedings of the Porto Alegre Symposium, IAHS Publ. Number 174.
Diez, J. R., et al. (2001). "Woody Debris in North Iberian Streams: Influence of Geomorphology, Vegetation, and Management." Environmental Management 28(5): 687-698.
Diez, J. R., et al. (2000). "Effect of removal of wood on streambed stability and retention of organic matter." Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19(4): 621-632.
Dilts, T. E., et al. (2010). "Mapping riparian vegetation with Lidar Data." ArcUser Winter 2010: 18-21.
Dinehart, R. L. (1992). Evolution of Coarse Gravel Bed Forms: Field Measurements at Flood Stage Vancouver, Washington, US Geological Survey: 2667-2689.
Dinehart, R. L. (1992). "Evolution of coarse gravel bed forms: field measurements at flood stage." WRR 28(10): 2667-2689.
Field measurements to investigate the origin and growth of mesoscale gravel bed forms in deep flows were made in the North Fork Toutle River, Washington. Sonar observations of the gravel streambed at a stationary point were recorded during two storm flows in December 1989 and January 1990 with concurrent bed load sampling and continuous velocity measurements. Mean diameter of bed load was about 3 cm, flow depths were 1.4-2.4 m, and bed shear stresses were 2-5 times the critical stress of mean bed load diameter, as computed from the depth-slope product. These records document the hydrodynamic conditions under which dunelike coarse gravel bed forms were observed. Coarse gravel dunes (height, 20cm; length, 6-15 m) evolved more than 24 hours after peak stage, primarily by accretion, as inferred from bed form changes revealed in dual sonar records. Dune heights increased to 40 cm as mean trough elevation rose about 50 cm over several hours. Smaller dunes (wavelength, 1-3 m), transitional from bed load sheets, migrated on the backs of the large dunes. The superposed dunes finally became indistinguishable from the large dunes, which diminished in height by increasing the mean level of troughs. Gravel deposition occurred at the observation point in conjunction with migration of gravel dunes. The direct comparison of known bed form regimes and gravel bar facies provides alternative interpretations of gravelly deposits.
 
Dinehart, R. L. (1992). "Gravel-bed deposition and erosion by bedform migration observed ultrasonically during storm flow, North Fork Toutle River, Washington " Journal of Hydrology 136: 51-71.
Dingman, S. L. (1984). Fluvial Hydrology New York, W. H. Freeman and Company.
Dingman, S. L. (2002). Physical Hydrology, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Dinhart, R. L. (1992). "Evoluion of coarse gravel bed forms: field measurements at flood stage." WRR 28(10): 2667-2689.
Field measurements to investigate the origin and growth of mesoscale gravel bed forms in deep flows were made in the North Fork Toutle River, Washington. Sonar observations of the gravel streambed at a stationary point were recorded during two storm flows in December 1989 and January 1990 with concurrent bed load sampling and continuous velocity measurements. Mean diameter of bed load was about 3 cm, flow depths were 1.4-2.4 m, and bed shear stresses were 2-5 times the critical stress of mean bed load diameter, as computed from the depth-slope product. These records document the hydrodynamic conditions under which dunelike coarse gravel bed forms were observed. Coarse gravel dunes (height, 20cm; length, 6-15 m) evolved more than 24 hours after peak stage, primarily by accretion, as inferred from bed form changes revealed in dual sonar records. Dune heights increased to 40 cm as mean trough elevation rose about 50 cm over several hours. Smaller dunes (wavelength, 1-3 m), transitional from bed load sheets, migrated on the backs of the large dunes. The superposed dunes finally became indistinguishable from the large dunes, which diminished in height by increasing the mean level of troughs. Gravel deposition occurred at the observation point in conjunction with migration of gravel dunes. The direct comparison of known bed form regimes and gravel bar facies provides alternative interpretations of gravelly deposits.
 
Diplas, P. Interaction of Fines with a Gravel Bed  (DRAFT): 5-9 - 5-16.
Diplas, P. (1987). "Bedload Transport in Gravel-Bed Streams " Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 113(3): 277-291.
Diplas, P. and A. J. Sutherland (1988). "Sampling techniques for gravel sized sediments." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering(5): 484-501.
DNR Staff (1998). Proposed Forest Practices Rules for implementing the Forestry Module. Olympia, Washington, Department of Natural Resources: 1-61.
Dobbie, M. J., et al. (2008). "Sparse sampling: spatial design for monitoring stream networks." Statistics Surveys 2: 113-153.
Spatial designs for monitoring stream networks, especially e-
phemeral systems, are typically non-standard, ‘sparse’ and can be very
complex, reflecting the complexity of the ecosystem being monitored, the
scale of the population, and the competing multiple monitoring objectives.
The main purpose of this paper is to present a review of approaches to
spatial design to enable informed decisions to be made about developing
practical and optimal spatial designs for future monitoring of streams
 
D'Odorico, P. and S. Fagherazzi (2003). "A probabilistic model of rainfall-triggered shallow landslides in hollows: A long-term analysis." Water Resources Research 39(9): 1262.
The long-term temporal evolution of soil thickness in hollows depends on the processes controlling the rates of colluvium accumulation and erosion. Accumulation is due to soil creep and mass-wasting processes from the adjacent slopes, while erosion of colluvial deposits is mainly due to debris flow and landsliding. An analysis of the long-term evolution of colluvial deposits is developed through a stochastic model of soil mass balance at a point accounting for colluvium infilling, expressed as a deterministic function of the deposit thickness, and soil erosion by shallow landslides, modeled as a random (Poisson) process. Landsliding is related to the characteristics of the triggering precipitation through an infinite-slope stability analysis, a kinematic model of hollow response to rainfall, and the intensity-duration-frequency curves characterizing the regime of extreme precipitation. This analysis provides a probabilistic representation of the long-term dynamics at a point of colluvium thickness as a function of the timescale of hollow infilling and of the frequency of triggering rainfalls. The model is solved both numerically and (under simplified conditions) analytically, showing the existence of different regimes in the temporal evolution of soil thickness. In the case of steep slopes (i.e., with slope angles, β, greater than the soil repose angle, φ) the hollow can be either in a supply-limited state or in event-limited conditions, depending on whether the dynamics are limited by the supply of sediment from the adjacent slopes or by the occurrence of rainstorms able to trigger landslides. Nevertheless, since the likelihood of landslide occurrence increases with increasing values of deposit thickness, colluvium accretion always leads to conditions favorable to landsliding. Vice versa, in the case of gentle slopes (i.e., β < φ) the probability of landsliding decreases with increasing values of soil thickness, and event-limited conditions may evolve into unconditionally stable states.
 
Dodov, B. and E. Foufoula-Georgiou (2006). "Floodplain morphometry extraction from a high resolution digital elevation model: a simple algorithm for regional analysis studies." IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters 3(3): 410-413.
In this paper we introduce a fast algorithm for floodplain delineation. The underlying assumption of the proposed procedure is that the inundation depth used to define the lateral extent of the “geomorphologic floodplain” is proportional to the depth of the channel at bankfull flow, a relationship which emerged from a detailed and objective regional analysis. Bankfull and floodplain geometry extracted with the proposed algorithm over a wide range of scales revealed important connections between fluvial and hydrologic processes and showed that the nature of these connections is scale-dependent.
 
Dodson, J. J., et al. (1998). "Elements in the development of conservation plans for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 312-323.
Doe, W. W., D.S. Jones, and S.D. Warren (1999). The soil erosion model guide for military land managers: analysis of erosion models for natural and cultural applications. The Tri-Service CADD/GIS Technology Center, CSU CEMML, Fort Collins, CO,122p.
Dolloff, C. A. (1983). The relationships of wood debris to juvenile salmonid production and microhabitat selection in small southeast Alaska streams. Bozeman, MT, Montana State University: 100.
Dolloff, C. A. and G. H. Reeves (1989). "Microhabitat Partitioning among Stream-Dwelling Juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and Dolly Varden, Salvelinus malma " Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47: 2297-2306.
Dominguez, F., J. Canon, and J.B. Valdez, ((in review).). "IPCC-AR4 climate simulations for the Southwestern US: the importance of future ENSO projections." Climate Change.
Dooge, J. C. I. (1986). "Looking for hydrologic laws." Water  Resources Research 22(9): 46S-58S.
Dorn, R. I., et al. (1987). "Isotopic evidence for climatic influence on alluvial-fan development in Death Valley, California." Geology 15: 108-110.
Doten, C. O., L.C. Bowling, J.S. Lanini, E.P. Maurer, and D.P. Lettenmaier (2006). "A spatially distributed model for the dynamic prediction of sediment erosion and transport in mountainous forested watersheds." Water Resources Research 42: W04417, doi:04410.01029/02004WR003829.
Doten, C. O., et al. (2006). "A spatially distributed model for the dynamic prediction of sediment erosion and transport in mountainous forested waterseds." Water Resources Research 42.
Erosion and sediment transport in a temperate forested watershed are predicted with a
new sediment model that represents the main sources of sediment generation in forested
environments (mass wasting, hillslope erosion, and road surface erosion) within the
distributed hydrology-soil-vegetation model (DHSVM) environment. The model produces
slope failures on the basis of a factor-of-safety analysis with the infinite slope model
through use of stochastically generated soil and vegetation parameters. Failed material is
routed downslope with a rule-based scheme that determines sediment delivery to streams.
Sediment from hillslopes and road surfaces is also transported to the channel network. A
simple channel routing scheme is implemented to predict basin sediment yield. We
demonstrate through an initial application of this model to the Rainy Creek catchment, a
tributary of the Wenatchee River, which drains the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains,
that the model produces plausible sediment yield and ratios of landsliding and surface
erosion when compared to published rates for similar catchments in the Pacific Northwest.
A road removal scenario and a basin-wide fire scenario are both evaluated with the model.
 
Dott, R. H. J. (1983). "1982 SEPM Presidential Address: Episoic Sedimentation - How Normal is Average? How Rare is Rare? Does it Matter?" Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 53(1): 0005-0023.
Douglas I (1999). "Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts  in South-East Asia: a review." Phil. Trans.: The Royal Society London B 354: 1725-1738.
Douglass, J. E., and W.T. Swank (1972). Streamflow modification through management of eastern forests. USDA Forest Service, Research Paper SE-94, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Asheville, NC. 16pp.
Downs, P. W. and A. Simon (2001). "Fluvial geomorphological analysis of the recruitment of large woody debris in the Yalobusha River network Central Mississippi, USA." Geomorphology 37: 65-91.
Downs, P. W. and A. Simon (2001). "Fluvial geomorphological analysis of the recruitment of large woody debris in the Yalobusha River network, Cnetral Mississippi, USA." Geomorphology 37: 65-91.
Dragovich, D. and R. Morris (2002). "Fire intensity, run-off and sediment movement in eucalypt forest near Sydney, Australia." Geomorphology Publication - International Association of Geomorphologists 10: 145-164.
Dragovich, D. and R. Morris (2002). "Fire intensity, slopewash and bio-transfer of sediment in eucalypt forest, Australia." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27(12): 1309-1319.
Sediment movement (slopewash and bio-transfer), runoff, and organic matter movement (mainly leaf litter, ash and charcoal) were monitored on ten plots for a six-month period following bushfires in eastern Australia in the 1990s. Plots were installed in areas which had experienced high, moderate and low intensity burns. Although between-plot variability was high, slopewash and organic matter amounts were greatest on the intensely burnt areas, and progressively less on moderate and low intensity burns. In contrast, most leaf litter input from scorched leaf fall was derived from, and collected in, moderately burnt areas. Bio-transfer of sediment (direct downslope surface movement produced by faunal activity) occurred mainly by ant mounding, and was more than ten times greater on moderately burnt areas than on plots having high or low intensity burns. Bio-transfer accounted for approximately 36 per cent of total sediment collected, with this material being recorded least often and in smallest quantities on areas of high intensity burns. Bio-transfer by ant mounding and animal scratchings contributed loose surface sediment for transport by overland flow, disproportionately increasing total sediment movement to plot aprons in areas of moderate intensity burns. Abstract Copyright (2002), Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 
Dragovich, J. D. and M. J. Brunengo (1995). Landslide Map and Inventory, Tilton River - Mineral Creek Area Lewis County, Washington, Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources.
Dragovich, J. D. and M. J. Brunengo (1995). Landslide map of the Tilton River - Mineral Creek area, Lewis County, Washington. Olympia, Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources.
Dragovich, J. D., et al. (1993). "Landslide inventory and analysis of the Tilton Creek-Mineral River area, Lewis County, Washington: Part 2: Soils, Harvest Age, and Conclusions." Washington Geology 21(4): 1-32.
Dragovich, J. D., et al. (1993). "Landslide Inventory and Analysis of the Tilton River - Mineral Creek Area, Lewis County, Washington. Part 1: Terrain and Geologic Factors." Washington Geology 21(3): 9-18.
Dragovich, J. D., et al. (1993). "Landslide Inventory and Analysis of the Tilton River - Mineral Creek Area, Lewis County, Washington. Part 2: Soils, Harvest Age, and Conclusions." Washington Geology 21(4): 18-30.
Dragovich, J. D., et al. (1993). "Landslide Inventory and Analysis of the Tilton River-MIneral Creek Area Lewis County Washington." Washington Geology 21(4): 18-30.
Drury, T. A. (2001). Steelhead Haven Landslide Remediation Feasibility Study, Prepared for The Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians by GeoEngineers, Inc.: 23.
Duan, J., et al. (1995). A coupled hydro-geomorphic and ecologic model for examining effects of forest cutting on watershed process. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 76: 261.
Duan, J. G. and G. D. Gylsson (2001). "An analytical approach to estimate soil erosion from roadside ditches in mountain forest." Proceedings - Federal Inter-Agency Sedimentation Conference 7, Volume 2: V55-V62.
Road construction has increased the run-off erosion and silt-producing potential from road cut banks and ditches along highways. Road ditches are designed to transport flow and sediment coming from bank cuts. Erosion occurs when flow-induced shear stress is sufficient to entrain bed or bank material. This paper reports the development of an analytical approach to estimate soil erosion from road cut banks and ditches. The result indicated that sediment yield could be calculated based on runoff, the slope and length of road cut banks, the longitudinal slope of road, and pavement in road ditches. Highway engineers can use this approach to estimate soil erosion in the design of roadside ditches.
 
Duck Creek Associates, Inc. (2008). Wilson River Watershed Analysis. O. D. o. Forestry. Salem, OR.
Dudziak, J. (1974). "Observations of development of slope rills in forest clearings of the Tatra Mountains.(In Polish with English summary)." Czasopismo geograficzne; kwartalnick Zrzeszenia Pol. Nauczycieli Geografji, Towarzystwa Geograficznego we Lwowie i Towarzystwa Geograficznego w Pozna 45(1): 31-45.
Duijsings, J. J. H. M. (1987). "A Sediment Budget for a Forested Cathment in Luxembourg and it's Implications for Channel Development." Earth Surface Process and Landforms 12: 173-184.
Duncan, J. M. and S. G. Wright (1980). "The accuracy of equilibrium methods of slope stability analysis." Engineering Geology 16(1): 5-17.
Duncan, S. H., R.E. Bilby, L.W. Ward, and J.T. Heffner (1987). "Transport of road surface sediment through ephemeral stream channels." Water Resources Bulletin 23(1): 113-119.
Duncan, S. H. (?). "Slope Stability Analysis in Timber Harvest Planning: Smith Creek, Pacific County, Washington." Engineering Geology in Washington (is this right?) II: 927-932.
Duncan, S. H., et al. (1987). "Transport of road-surface sediment through ephermal stream channels." Water Resources Bulletin 23(1): 114-119.
Duncan, S. H. and J. V. Ward (1985). "The influence of watershed geology and forest roads on the composition of salmon spawning gravel." Northwest Science 59(3): 204-212.
The composition of stream gravels used for spawning by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) was examined in 12 streams in southwestern Washington State, whose watersheds have been actively managed for commercial timber production. The amount of fine sediment (< 2 mm in size) was more closely correlated to the lithology and soils of the watershed than to forest management practices, specifically forest roads. None of the sampled stream reaches contained sediment in amounts considered to impair salmonid survival. Streams in watersheds dominated by basalt rock had a higher percentage of sand particles 0.5-2.0 mm and lower percentages of silt and clay (particles < 0.063 mm) than did streams in watersheds dominated by siltstone and graywacke sandstone rock. A significant positive correlation was obtained between percentage of watershed area in sedimentary rock, and percentage of medium and fine sand and silt and clay particles in spawning gravels. Assessment of the potential of a watershed to produce fine sediment is possible by examination of basin geology and soils.
 
Duncan, S. H. and J. V. Ward (1985). "A technique for measuring scour and fill of salmon spawning riffles in headwater streams." Water Resources Bulletin 21(3): 507-511.
Duncan, S. H., et al. (1987). "A Method for Assessing Landslide Potential as an Acid in Forest Road Placement." Northwest Science 61(3): 152-162.
Dunham, J. B., et al. (2002). "Influences of spatial and temporal variation on fish-habitat relationships defined by regression quantiles." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131: 86-98.
We used regression quantiles to model potentially limiting relationships between the standing crop of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki and measures of stream channel morphology. Regression quantile models indicated that variation in fish density was inversely related to the width:depth ratio of streams but not to stream width or depth alone. The spatial and temporal stability of model predictions were examined across years and streams, respectively. Variation in fish density with width:depth ratio (10th–90th regression quantiles) modeled for streams sampled in 1993–1997 predicted the variation observed in 1998–1999, indicating similar habitat relationships across years. Both linear and nonlinear models described the limiting relationships well, the latter performing slightly better. Although estimated relationships were transferable in time, results were strongly dependent on the influence of spatial variation in fish density among streams. Density changes with width:depth ratio in a single stream were responsible for the significant (P < 0.10) negative slopes estimated for the higher quantiles (>80th). This suggests that stream-scale factors other than width:depth ratio play a more direct role in determining population density. Much of the variation in densities of cutthroat trout among streams was attributed to the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (a possible competitor) or connectivity to migratory habitats. Regression quantiles can be useful for estimating the effects of limiting factors when ecological responses are highly variable, but our results indicate that spatiotemporal variability in the data should be explicitly considered. In this study, data from individual streams and stream-specific characteristics (e.g., the occurrence of nonnative species and habitat connectivity) strongly affected our interpretation of the relationship between width:depth ratio and fish density.
 
Dunham, J. B., et al. (1999). "Local and geographic variability in the distribution of stream-living Lahontan Cutthroat Trout." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128: 875-889.
We investigated local and geographic variability in the up- and downstream distribution
limits of threatened Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) in stream
habitats of the eastern Lahontan basin in northern Nevada and southeastern Oregon. At a geographic
scale, elevations of upstream distribution limits were significantly correlated with latitude and
longitude, suggesting a potential influence of climatic gradients. Elevations of upstream distribution
limits also were positively correlated with maximum basin elevation, which suggested topographic,
rather than climatic constraints may be important. Upstream distribution limits were not signifi-
cantly affected by local variation in stream size or presumptive dispersal barriers. Stream gradient
was related to upstream distribution limits, but this was again confounded by maximum basin
elevation. Stream gradients used by Lahontan cutthroat trout at upstream limits were considerably
steeper than those observed for other subspecies of cutthroat trout in other areas. Geographic
variation in elevations of downstream distribution limits was also apparent, paralleling variability
in summer air temperatures and presumed restriction of Lahontan cutthroat trout from lower
elevation habitats by unsuitably warm temperatures in summer. Previous regional models assumed
downstream distribution limits for salmonids correspond to isotherms of 22–248C (mean July air
temperature), but we found the distribution of Lahontan cutthroat trout to be considerably more
restricted, most closely corresponding to a mean July air temperature of 188C. Occurrence of
nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis was associated with a significant upstream shift of the
downstream distribution of Lahontan cutthroat trout, suggesting a highly variable, but negative
interaction between these species.
 
 
Dunham, J. B. and B. E. Rieman (1999). "Metapopulation structure of Bull Trout: influences of physical, biotic, and geometrical landscape characteristics." Ecological Applicatons 9(2): 642-655.
Metapopulation structure of species in fragmented landscapes is ultimately the result of spatial variability in demographic processes. While specific information on demographic parameters is desirable, a more practical approach to studying metapopulations in fragmented landscapes may begin with analyses of species’ occurrence in relation to large-scale habitat variability. Here, we analyzed occurrence of stream-living bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in relation to physical, biotic, and geometrical characteristics of habitats. Bull trout occurrence was analyzed at several spatial (10x m) scales. Data were from nested sampling of 720 sites (10 m), 179 reaches (102 m), and 81 patches (103 m) of stream habitats within the Boise River basin of central Idaho. Based on previous findings, patches were defined as stream catchments with suitable conditions for spawning and rearing of bull trout (>1600 m elevation). Patch-scale bull trout occurrence was significantly related to patch area and isolation (stream distance between occupied patches). Lack of spatial autocorrelation between patches indicated that isolation effects were more likely the result of limited interaction among habitats (such as dispersal), rather than of correlated environmental conditions. A third factor, human disturbance in the form of roads, was associated with reduced bull trout occurrence at the patch-scale. Analyses of occurrence among reaches within occupied patches showed bull trout may select larger (>2 m width) stream habitats. Occurrence of bull trout was not associated with nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) at large (patch), intermediate (reach), or small (site) spatial scales. Definition of a metapopulation structure for bull trout in the Boise River basin was complicated by uncertainties in the frequency and magnitude of dispersal. From the distribution of patch sizes and isolation among occupied patches, we suggest that the metapopulation is a complex mosaic of several elements found in conceptual models. This complexity poses a challenge to empirical and theoretical attempts to study stream-living bull trout. Future work to define the structure of bull trout metapopulations must relate temporal and spatial patterns of patch occupancy with complex patterns of dispersal that likely interact with habitat spatial structure, life history variability, and the historical context of regional climate changes. Results of this work suggest that conservation of bull trout should involve protection of larger, less isolated, and less disturbed (as indexed by road densities) habitats that may serve as important refugia or sources of recolonization. Bull trout populations in smaller, isolated, and more disturbed habitats may be at risk of extinction. Finally, metapopulation structure implies the existence of suitable, but presently unoccupied habitat, which should be managed carefully to facilitate potential natural recolonization or reintroductions of bull trout
 
Dunham, J. B., et al. (2002). Patch-based models to predict species occurrence: lessons from salmonid fishes in streams. Predicting species Occurrences: Issues of Accuracy and Scale. J. M. Scott, P. J. Heglund, F. Samson et al. Covelo, CA, Island Press: 327-334.
Dunham, J. B., et al. (2003). "Effects of fire on fish populations: landscape perspectives on persistence of native fishes and nonnative fish invasions." Forest Ecology and Management 178: 183-196.
Our limited understanding of the short and long-term effects of fire on fish contributes to considerable uncertainty in
assessments of the risks and benefits of fire management alternatives. A primary concern among the many potential effects of fire
is the effects of fire and fire management on persistence of native fish populations. Limited evidence suggests vulnerability of
fish to fire is contingent upon the quality of affected habitats, the amount and distribution of habitat (habitat fragmentation), and
habitat specificity of the species in question. Species with narrow habitat requirements in highly degraded and fragmented
systems are likely to be most vulnerable to fire and fire-related disturbance. In addition to effects of fire on native fish, there are
growing concerns about the effects of fire on nonnative fish invasions. The role of fire in facilitating invasions by nonnative fishes
is unknown, but experience with other species suggests some forms of disturbance associated with fire may facilitate invasion.
Management efforts to promote persistence of fishes in fire-prone landscapes can take the form of four basic alternatives: (1) prefire
management; (2) post-fire management; (3) managing fire itself (e.g. fire fighting); and (4) monitoring and adaptive
management. Among these alternatives, pre-fire management is likely to be most effective. Effective pre-fire management
activities will address factors that may render fish populations more vulnerable to the effects of fire (e.g. habitat degradation,
fragmentation, and nonnative species). Post-fire management is also potentially important, but suffers from being a reactive
approach that may not address threats in time to avert them. Managing fire itself can be important in some contexts, but negative
consequences for fish populations are possible (e.g. toxicity of fire fighting chemicals to fish). Monitoring and adaptive
management can provide important new information for evaluating alternatives, but proper implementation is often hampered by
inadequate study designs and inconsistent financial and institutional support. The challenge for providing better management
guidelines will be to add solid empirical data and models to assess the relevance of emerging concepts and theories, and provide
a sense of where and when fires pose significant risks and/or benefits to fishes.
 
Dunkerley, D. L. (1994). "Discussion: Bulk  sampling of coarse clastic sediments for particle-size analysis." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 19: 255-261.
Dunne, J., et al. (1999). "Scaling factors for the rates of production of cosmogenic nuclides for geometric shielding and attenuation at depth on sloped surfaces." Geomorphology 27: 3-11.
Dunne, T., and Leopold, L. (1978). Water in environmental planning, W. H. Freeman & Company. San Francisco.
Dunne, T. (1980). "Formation and controls of channel networks." Progress in Physical Geography 4: 211.
Dunne, T. (1984). Effects of the Twin Falls and Weeks Falls Projects on Sedimentation Along the Snoqualmie River System. Seattle, Washington, HYDRA Geotechnical Group: 1-55.
Dunne, T. (1984). The prediction of erosion in forests.  Keynote address. Symposium on Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability., East-West Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, East West Center.
Dunne, T. (1988). Contributions of geomorphology to flood-control planning. Flood Geomorphology. R. C. K. V.R. Baker, and P.C. Patton. New York, Wiley and Sons.
Dunne, T. (1989). "Debris-Flow Fans (DRAFT)." 22.
Dunne, T. (1989). Unsolicited Proposal Submitted to the National Science Foundation Earth Sciences Division.
Dunne, T. (1991). "Stochastic Aspects of the Relations between Climate, Hydrology and Landform Evolution." Transactions of the Japanese Geomorphological Union 12(1): 1-24.
Dunne, T. (1998). "Critical data requirements for prediction of erosion and sedimentation in mountain drainage basins." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 34(4): 795-808.
Dunne, T. (2001). "A Scientific Basis for the Prediction of Cumulative Watershed Effects." Retrieved 6/3/2002, 2002, from http://www.cnr.berekely.edu/forestry/cwe/cwe_i.html.
Dunne, T. (?). Hydrology, Mechanics and Geomorphic Implications of Erosion by Subsurface Flow (DRAFT). Seattle, Washington, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Washington: 89.
Dunne, T. (?). The Prediction of Erosion in Forests. Symposium on Effects of Forest Land Use on Erosion and Slope Stability, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Dunne, T., et al. (2001). A scientific basis for the prediction of cumulative watershed effects. University of California Wildland Resource Center Report No. 46. Berkeley, CA, University of California Wildland Resource Center.
Dunne, T. and B. F. Aubry (?). Evaluation of Horton's theory of sheetwash and rill erosion on the basis of field experiments ? Chapter 2.
Dunne, T. and R. D. Black (1970). "An experimental investigation of runoff production in permeable soils." Water Resources Research 6: 478-490.
Dunne, T. and R. D. Black (1970). "An experimnetal investigation of runoff production in permeable soils." Water Resources Research 6: 478-490.
Dunne, T. and L. H. Fairchild "Estimation of flood and sedimentation hazards around Mt. St. Helens."? 36(4): 12-22.
Dunne, T. and L. B. Leopold (1978). Water in Environmental Planning. New York, W. H. Freeman and Company.
Dunne, T., et al. (1995). Microtopography of hillslopes and initiation of channels by horton overland flow. Natural and Anthropogenic Influences in Fluvial Geomorphology, The Wolman Volume. J. E. Costa, A. J. Miller, K. W. Potter and P. R. Wilcock. Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union. Geophysical Monograph 89: 27-44.
Dunwiddie, P. W. (1986). "A 6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington." Ecological Society of America 67(1): 58-68.
Duvall, A., et al. (2004). "Tectonic and lithologic controls on bedrock channel profiles and processes in coastal California." Journal of Geephysical Research 109(F03002): 18.
Recent theoretical models suggest that topographic characteristics of bedrock
channels are products of interactions among tectonics, substrate resistance, and the
climatically modulated erosive ability of the river. The degree to which these factors
influence the form of channel profiles is poorly quantified at present. Here we investigate
bedrock channels developed across the southern flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains,
California. Uniform climate and systematic variations in lithology and rock uplift rate
along the range allow comparison of channel morphology between (1) channels eroding
rocks of uniform and nonuniform strength and (2) channels experiencing differences in
tectonic forcing. We combine field observations, surveys, and analysis of digital data
to determine topographic and hydraulic characteristics of bedrock channels. At a constant
rock uplift rate, streams flowing from resistant to less resistant bedrock exhibit highly
concave profiles and increased gradients along lower reaches relative to channels
developed in uniform bedrock. These effects are interpreted as responses to (1) an increase
in substrate resistance to channel incision in the upper reaches and (2) transport-limited
gradients along lower reaches. Comparisons of channels developed across uniform
lithology but experiencing an approximately sevenfold difference in rock uplift rate reveal
an approximately twofold increase in gradient and an approximately threefold decrease
in width. In this landscape the combined channel adjustments of gradient and width are
consistent with a fluvial incision model in which channel incision rate is linearly
proportional to mean bed shear stress.
 
Dwire, K. A. and J. B. Kauffman (2003). "Fire and riparian ecosystems in landscapes of the western USA." Forest Ecology and Management 178: 61-74.
Despite the numerous values of riparian areas and the recognition of fire as a critical natural disturbance, few studies have
investigated the behavior, properties, and influence of natural fire in riparian areas of the western USA. Riparian areas frequently
differ from adjacent uplands in vegetative composition and structure, geomorphology, hydrology, microclimate, and fuel
characteristics. These features may contribute to different fire environments, fire regimes, and fire properties (frequency,
severity, behavior, and extent) in riparian areas relative to uplands. In certain forested riparian areas, fire frequency has generally
been lower, and fire severity has been more moderate than in adjacent uplands, but in other areas, fires have appeared to burn
riparian areas with comparable frequency. Impacts of land use and management may strongly influence fire properties and
regimes in riparian areas. Fire suppression, livestock grazing, logging, damming and flow regulation, agricultural diversions,
channel modifications, and introduction of invasive species have led to shifts in plant species composition, structure and
distribution of fuel loads, and changes in microclimate and areal extent of riparian areas. Cumulative impacts of human
alterations are likely to exert the most pronounced influence on fire behavior during periods of drought and under conditions of
extreme fire weather. Riparian plant species possess adaptations to fluvial disturbances that facilitate survival and reestablishment
following fires, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of many streamside habitats. Given the critical resource values of
riparian zones, additional data are needed to understand interactions between fire and riparian ecosystems, and how riparian
zones affect spatial and temporal patterns of fires at the landscape scale. An improved understanding of fire ecology and effects
in riparian areas is needed to prescribe ecologically sound rehabilitation projects following fire.
 
 
Dwyer, W. P., et al. (1993). "Influence of Electroshock and Mechanical Shock on Survival of Trout Eggs " North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13: 839-843.
Dyrness, C. T. (1967). Mass soil movement in the H. J. Andrews Experimentat Forest, U.S.D.A Forest Service: 12.
Dyrness, C. T. (1967). Mass soil movements, US Forest Service: 1-12.
Eagleson, P. S. (1972). "Dynamics of flood frequency." Water Resources Research 8: 878-898.
Earle, C. J., et al. (1996). "Charcoal in northcentral Alaskan lake sediments: relationships to fire and late-Quaternary vegetation history." Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 92: 83-95.
Earth Systems Institute (2002). River Network Model. Seattle, WA, Earth Systems Institute: Software.
Easterbrook, D. J. (1999). Quaternary Climatic Changes and the Ice Ages Surface Processes and Landforms. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Second Edition: 365-399.
Eaton, L. S., et al. (2003). "Role of debris flows in long-term landscape denudation in the central Appalachians of Virginia." Geology 31(4): 339-342.
Four major storms that triggered debris flows in the Virginia{ndash}West Virginia Appalachians provide new insights into the role of high-magnitude, low-frequency floods in long-term denudation and landscape evolution in mountainous terrain. Storm denudation in the Blue Ridge Mountain drainage basins is approximately an order of magnitude greater compared to basins located in the mountains of the Valley and Ridge province. This difference is probably the result of higher storm rainfall from the Blue Ridge storms. Radiocarbon dating of debris-flow deposits in the Blue Ridge indicates a debris-flow return interval of not more than 2{ndash}4 k.y. in mountainous river basins. This finding, combined with measurements of basin denudation, suggests that approximately half of the long-term denudation from mechanical load occurs episodically by debris-flow processes. Although floods of moderate magnitude are largely responsible for mobilizing sediment in low-gradient streams, our data suggest that high-magnitude, low-frequency events are the most significant component in delivering coarse-grained regolith from mountainous hollows and channels to the lowland floodplains.
 
Ebersole, J. L., et al. (2006). "Juvenile coho salmon growth and survival across stream network seasonal habitats." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135: 1681-1697.
Abstract.—Understanding watershed-scale variation in juvenile salmonid survival and growth can provide
insights into factors influencing demographics and can help target restoration and mitigation efforts for
imperiled fish populations. We assessed growth, movement, and apparent overwinter survival of individually
tagged juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in a coastal Oregon watershed from June 2002 to June
2003 and related growth and survival parameters to stream characteristics. Fall body size of juvenile coho
salmon was a good predictor of smolt size and survival, but smolt size was also influenced by overwintering
location. This was due to strong spatial patterns in winter growth rates associated with residency and
movement into a small intermittent tributary. Though nearly dry in midsummer, this stream supported high
densities of spawning coho salmon in the fall, and juveniles rearing there exhibited relatively high growth
rates and emigrated as larger smolts. Improved winter growth and survival of juvenile coho salmon utilizing
tributary habitats underscore the importance of maintaining connectivity between seasonal habitats and
providing a diversity of sheltering and foraging opportunities, particularly where main-stem habitats have
been simplified by human land uses.
 
Edwards, R. T. (1998). The hyporheic zone. River ecology and management: lessons from the Pacific coastal ecosystem. R. Naiman and R. E. Bilby. New York, Springer: 399-429.
Effects, T. U. o. C. C. o. C. W. (2001). A scientific basis for the prediction of cumulative watershed effects. University of California Wildland Resource Center Report No. 46, 98pp.: 98pp.
Eide, J. (1990). A 48 year sediment budget (1942-1989) for Deer Creek basin, Washington, Western Washington University.
Eiler, J. H., et al. (1992). "Riverine spawning by sockeye salmon in the Taku River, Alaska and British Columbia." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121(6): 701-708.
Abstract.— Radio telemetry was used to determine the distribution of sockeye salmon Onco- rhynchus nerka returning to spawn in the glacial Taku River in 1984 and 1986,and to locate and characterize spawning areas used by this species.During the study,253 sockeye salmon were tracked as they moved upriver;204 of these were followed to spawning areas.Only 37%of the 204 fish traveled to areas associated with lakes;the remaining 63%returned to "riverine"areas- river areas without lakes (42%to the Taku River main stem,17%to the Nakina River,and 4% to other rivers).Sockeye salmon spawning in riverine areas used a variety of habitat types,including main-river channels,side channels,tributary streams,and upland sloughs.Most (55%)of the radio- tagged fish that returned to the Taku River main stem were tracked to side-channel spawning areas.Half of the 471 adult sockeye salmon sampled in main-stem spawning areas had migrated to sea as juveniles before their first winter.This study showed that many sockeye salmon returning to the Taku River do not depend on lakes,and that riverine sockeye salmon make up a major portion of the run in some river systems.
 
Einstein, H. A. and R. B. Banks (1950). "Fluid resistance of composite roughness " Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 31(4): 603-610.
Eisbacher, G. H. (1982). "Mountain Torrents and Debris Flows." Episodes 4: 12-17.
Ellen, S. D. and R. K. Mark (1993). Mapping debris-flow hazard in Honolulu using a DEM. Proceedings, Hydraulic Engineering '93. H. W. Shen, S. T. Su and F. Wen. New York, American Society of Civil Engineers. 2: 1774-1779.
Ellen, S. D., et al. (1993). Preliminary map of debris-flow hazard in the Honolulu District of Oahu, Hawaii: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 93-0213., U.S. Geological Survey.
Elliot, E. (2007). "WEPP Internet interfaces for forest erosion prediction." Journal of American Water Resources Association 40(2): 299-309.
Elliot, W., R. Foltz, and C. Luce (1995). Validation of the water erosion prediction project for low volume forest roads. Sixth International Conference on Low Volume Roads, Minneapolis, MN.
Elliot, W. J., R.B. Foltz, and P.R. Robichaud (1994). A tool for estimating disturbed forest site sediment production. Interior cedar-hemlock-white pine forests; ecology and management: symposium proceedings., Spokane, WA.
Elliot, W. J., K. Hyde, L. MacDonald, and J. McKean (2006). Tools for analysis. CWE of fuel management. W. J. Elliot, and L.J. Andrei.
Elliot, W. J. and D. E. Hall (1997). Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) forest applications. Moscow, ID, Intermountain research Station, USDA Forest Service: 11.
Elliot, W. J., et al. (?). "Predicting Sedimentation from Forest Roads " Journal of Forestry: 23-29.
Elliot, W. J., et al. (2000). The Forest Service WEPP interfaces. 2000 ASAE Summer Meeting, St. Joseph, MI, ASAE.
Elliott, J. G., et al. (1999). Estimation of fire/flood chronology from alluvial fan stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America. 31: 441.
Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicates that sequential forest fire/flood events have been intermittent but common in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The recurrence of fire/flood events may reflect the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of large precipitation events. In the first several months following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, serious flood and sedimentation damage occurred to stream channels, roadways, bridges, domestic and commercial structures, and water-supply facilities. Precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burn area resulted in hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely-burned, 48 square kilometer area. Stratigraphic interpretation, dendrochronologic dating, and carbon-14 dating of Buffalo Creek alluvial deposits and of similar deposits in other forested foothills regions can be used to develop a recurrence probability for large-magnitude fire/flood events. Forested alluvial fans are present at the confluence of the main stem of Buffalo Creek and most tributaries. Following the 1996 fire, floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans. Incision of older fans revealed alternating sequences of gravel and fine-grain sediments representing periods of high sediment transport and fan aggradation, followed by intervals of quiescence. An alluvial-fan sequence at the mouth of a tributary draining a 1.3 square kilometer area indicated at least five previous fire/flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon dating of material in this fan spans approximately 2,900 years. An initial estimate of the interval between large fire/flood events ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9 centuries.
 
Elliott, W. J., A.V.Elliot, Qiong, W., and J.M. Laflen (1991). "Validation of the WEPP model with rill erosion plot data." ASAE.
Elliott, W. J., and I.S. Miller (2002). Estimating erosion impacts from implementing the national fire plan. Paper Number 02-5011. ASAE Annual International Meeting / CIGR XVth World Congress, Chicago, Ill.
Embrechts, J. and M. d. Dapper (1987). "Morphology and genesis of hillslope pediments in the Febe area (South-Cameroon)." Catena 14: 31-43.
Emmett, W. a. M. W. (2001). "Effective discharge and gravel-bed rivers." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 1369-1380.
England, P. and P. Molnar (1990). "Surface uplift, uplift of rocks, and exhumation of rocks." Geology 18: 1173-1177.
Environmental Protection Agency, E. (2000). "National Water Quality Inventory, 1998 report to Congress.". from http://www.epa.gov/305b/98report/. Accessed 5/5/06.
Erman, D. C., et al. (1988). "Effects of Winter Floods on Fishes in the Sierra Nevada " Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 2195-2200.
Erman, N. A. (1996). Status of Aquatic Invertebrates Davis, California, Unversity of California, Davis: 987-1008.
Eros, T., et al.
Eros, T., et al. (2011). "Network thinking in riverscape conservation - a graph based approach." Biological Conservation 144: 184-192.
Erskine, R. H., et al. (2006). "Comparison of grid-based algorithms for computing upslope contributing area." Water Resources Research 42.
Terrain attributes based on upslope contributing area, A, are used widely in distributed
hydrologic models. Several grid-based algorithms are available for estimating A. In this
study, five algorithms (D8, 8, MFD, DEMON, and D
1
) were compared quantitatively
on two undulating agricultural fields (63 and 109 ha) in northeastern Colorado. Global
positioning system (GPS) data (0.02-m accuracy) were used to generate grid digital
elevation models (DEMs) at 5-, 10-, and 30-m cell sizes. Relative differences between A
values estimated using single- and multiple-direction algorithms increased with
decreasing grid cell size. Relative differences were greatest along ridges and side slopes, and
differences decreased where the terrain became more convergent. Multiple-direction
algorithms (MFD, DEMON, and D
1
), allowing for flow divergence, are recommended on
these undulating terrains for 5- and 10-m grids where A is most sensitive to the algorithm
selection.
 
Erskine, W. D., et al. (2002). "Land use effects on sediment yields and soil loss rates in small basins of Triassic sandstone near Sydney, NSW, Australia." Catena 49(4): 271-287.
Espinosa, F. A., Jr. and K. M. Lee (1991). Natural propagation and Habitat Improvement Idaho: LoLo Creek and upper Lochsa, U.S. Bonneville Power Administration and U.S. Forest Service: 1-103.
ESRI (1998). ESRI Shapefile Technical Description, An ESRI White Paper, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc.: 34.
Etienne, R. S. and J. A. P. Heesterbeek (2001). "Rules of thumb for conservation of metapopulations based on a stochastic winking-patch model." The Amercian Naturalist 158: 389-407.
Evans, B. F., et al. (1993). "Distribution and abundance of coarse woody debris in some southern New Zealand streams from contrasting forest catchments." New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 27: 227-239.
Greater amounts of coarse woody debris (CWD) occurred in streams from old native forests than in streams from young native and pine forests in southern New Zealand. The size of CWD in the streams generally reflected the age of the surrounding vegatation. More wood was present in pool than in non-pool sections of old native forest streams and the frequency of pools per unit length formed by woody debris was greatest in these streams. The volumes of pools formed by wood and those formed by inorganic substrates were similar. Amounts of woody debris in these streams were relatively small compared to values recorded from North America.
 
Evans, B. M., D.W. Lehning, K.J. Corradini, G.W. Peterson, E. Nizeyimana, J.M. Hamlett, P.D. Robillard, and R.L. Day (2002). "A comprehensive GIS-based modeling approach for predicting nutrient loads in watershed." Journal o f Spatial Hydrology 2(2): 1-18.
Evans BM, S. S., and DW Lehning (2003). "A spatial technique for estimating  streambank erosion based on watershed characteristics." Journal of Spatial Hydrology 3(1): 2003.
Evans, K. G. (2000). "Methods for assessing mine site rehabilitation design for erosion impact." Australian Journal of Soil Research 38(2): 231-247.
Evans, S. (1994). "Draining Seattle - WPA Landslide Stabilization Projects, 1935-1941." Washington Geology 22(4): 3-10.
Everest, F. H. (1987). Salmonids of Western Forested Watersheds. Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions. E. D. Salo and T. W. Cundy. Seattle, Washington. Chapter 1: 3-8.
Everest, F. H., et al. (1987). Fine Sediment and Salmonid Production: A Paradox. Streamside Management: Forestry and Fishery Interactions. E. O. Salo and T. W. Cundy. Seattle, WA, USA, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington: 98-142.
Everest, F. H. and W. R. Meehan (1981). "Forest management and anadromous fish habitat productivity." Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 46: 521-530.
Everest, F. H. and W. R. Meehan (1981). Some effects of debris torrents on habitat of anadromous salmonids, National Council for the Paper Industry for Air and  Stream Improvement: 23-30.
Everest, F. H. and G. H. Reeves (2007). Riparian and aquatic habitats of the Pacific Northwest and Southeast Alaska: Ecology, Management History and Potential Management Strategies, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 130p.
Everitt, B. L. (1968). "Use of cottonwood in an investigation of the recent history of a floodplain." American Journal of Science 266: 417-439.
Fabricius, C. and K. Coetzee (1992). "Geographic information systems and artificial intelligence for predicting the presence or absence of mountain reedback." South Afr. Wildl. Res. 22: 80-86.
Fagan, W. F. (2002). "Connectivity, fragmentation, and extinction risk in dendritic metapopulations." Ecology 83: 3243-3249.
Fahnestock, R. K. (1963). Morphology and Hydrology of a Glacial Stream - White River, Mount Rainier Washington, Department of the Interior: 67.
Fahnestock, R. R. and J. K. Agee (1983). "Biomass Consumption and Smoke Production By Prehistoric and Modern Forest Fires In Western Washington." Journal of Forestry 81(10): 653-656.
Fairfield, J. and P. Leymarie (1991). "Drainage networks from grid digital elevation models." Water Resources Research 27(5): 709-717.
Famiglietti, J., et al. (2008). "Community modeling in hydrologic science." EOS, Transaction American Geophysical Union 89(32): 292.
Fannin, R. J. and J. Jaakkola (1999). "Hydrological response of hillslope soils above a debris-slide headscarp." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 36(6): 1111-1122.
The Jamieson Creek debris slide initiated in thin soils over a competent bedrock surface, on a planar
section of hillslope, during a heavy rainstorm in November 1990. An array of automated piezometers and tensiometers
was placed along a 22 m wide section of the headscarp in 1997 to monitor the temporal variation of pore-water
pressures. Interpretation of the data addresses the hydrologic response to the storms in October and November 1997.
The piezometers, which were designed for installation by driving, reveal very localized responses in what otherwise
appears to be a uniform soil matrix. Peak positive pressures occur at the time of maximum rainfall intensity. The
tensiometers indicate the hydrological response at the ground surface appears uncoupled from that at the bedrock
interface. Implications of the extreme spatial variability in pore-water pressure are evaluated for conceptual models of
hillslope hydrology. The assumption of parallel seepage flow is widely adopted in translational slope stability analyses,
imposing a linear distribution of pore-water pressure with depth. None of the reported field data are consistent with
such a linear distribution with depth or a uniform response across the slope.
 
Fannin, R. J. and T. P. Rollerson (1993). "Debris flows: some physical characteristics and behavior." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 30(1): 71-81.
Fannin, R. J. and M. P. Wise (2001). "An empirical-statistical model for debris flow travel distance." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 38(5): 982-994.
Farella, N., et al. (2001). "Deforestation modifying terrestrial organic transport in the Rio Tapajos, Brazilian Amazon." Organic Geochemistry 32(12): 1443-1458.
Farvolden, R. N. (1963). "Geologic Controls on Ground-water Storage and Base Flow." Journal of Hydrology 1: 219-249.
Fassnacht, S. R. (1996). "A multi-channel suspended sediment model for the MacKenzie Delta, Northwest Territories." Journal of Hydrology 197: 128-145.
Fausch, K. D. and T. G. Northcote (1992). "Large Woody Debris and Salmonid Habitat in a Small Coastal British Columbia Stream " Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 682-693.
Fausch, K. D., et al. (2002). "Landscapes to riverscapes: Bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream fishes." BioScience 52(6): 483-498.
Fausch, K. D., et al. (2002). "Landscapes to riverscapes: Bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream fishes." BioScience 52: 483-498.
Faustini, J. M. and J. A. Jones (2003). "Influence of large woody debris on channel morphology and dynamics in steep, boulder-rich mountain streams, western Cascades, Oregon." Geomorphology 51: 187-205.
This study used 20-year records of stream channel change and wood to test hypotheses about the long-term influence of large
woody debris (LWD) on channel morphology, channel stability, and sediment dynamics in a steep, boulder-rich mountain stream.
We compared two nearly adjacent reaches of third-order Mack Creek over the period 1978–1997 after virtually all wood was
removed from the channel of the lower reach in 1964. We assessed the long-term legacy of wood removal using repeated crosssection
surveys, streamflow data, LWD inventory data, and detailed mapping and longitudinal profile surveys. At each of 11
cross sections in the upper reach and 19 in the lower reach, we calculated areas of scour and fill in response to the two largest
floods in the record. We used quasi-likelihood logistic regression models to test the proportion of each reach that experienced
change between consecutive surveys over the entire record (1978–1997) as a function of flood return periods. The longitudinal
profile of the site without LWD was more variable than the reach with LWD at the finest scale (f1 m) due to a greater frequency
of boulder steps, but the reach with LWD was more variable at the channel unit scale. LWD-created steps 1 to 2.5 m high in the
wood-rich reach accounted for nearly 30% of the total channel fall and created low-gradient upstream channel segments one to
three channel widths long. As a result, both reaches have the same average slope (about 9%), but nearly three times as much of the
channel in the wood-rich reach had a slope of V5% as in the reach without wood (20.4% of total channel length vs. 7.5% of
channel length). The reach with abundant LWD was less responsive to moderate streamflow events (return period <f5 years),
but it responded similarly to peak flows with a return period of about 10 to 25 years. Although the average magnitude of crosssection
changes was the same during the largest flood in the record (25-year return period), the reach without LWD experienced
scour and coarsening of the bed surface, whereas the reach with LWD experienced aggradation upstream of LWD features. Mack
Creek may be representative of many steep mountain streams in which channel structure is strongly influenced by nonfluvial
processes: a legacy of large boulders from glacial or mass movement processes and a legacy of dead wood from ecological
processes. Sediment-limited mountain streams with large boulders, when deprived of LWD, appear to exhibit less morphological
variation at the channel unit scale, to store less sediment, and to release it more readily than those with LWD.
 
Favalli, M. and M. T. Pareschi (2004). "Digital elevation model construction from structured topographic data: The DEST algorithm." Journal of  Geophysical Research 109(F04004).
An algorithm, Determination of Earth Surface Structures (DEST), is presented to
reconstruct digital terrain models of complex landforms from topographic data, such as
contour lines and spot heights. The algorithm provides a triangular irregular network
(TIN) of the source data, based on a modified Delaunay approach. Delaunay triangulation
can introduce artificial terraces from a nonrandom distribution of input points such as a
sampled contour line. The algorithm proposed here constructs the three-dimensional
principal skeletons of these artificial flat areas, eliminating the unwanted effects of contour
lines. The algorithm can also be applied to topographic data from a variety of mixed
sources such as photogrammetric information, radar altimetry measurements, and
traditional contour lines. The sparse fine-surface structures present in the source data are
preserved, allowing accurate morphological evaluations, tectonic lineament extraction,
and volume estimation. A methodology (D-DEST) to easily derive, from a TIN computed
by DEST, the drainage path and the catchment areas is also presented. A comparison of
DEST with other methodologies is performed. It results that our approach does not
introduce sensible biased effects in slopes, aspects, drainage network, and catchment
areas. The evolution of the upper cone of Vesuvius volcano (Italy) during the last century,
as derived from historical cartography, is presented as an application of DEST. The
algorithm implemented in C can be requested at DEST_pareschi@pi.ingv.it.
 
Favis-Mortlock, D. (1998). "A self-organizing dynamic systems approach to the simulation of rill initiation and development on hillslopes." Computers & Geosciences 24(4): 353-372.
Whereas current erosion models are able to make quantitative estimates of rates of soil erosion by water on hillslopes with reasonable success, they are less competent when there is a need to apply a spatial dimension to their estimates. In particular, the initiation and development of rill networks is poorly modelled. Observations from field and laboratory suggest that it is possible to apply an evolutionary analogy to rill growth and development. Microrills, formed both by the runoff resulting from individual raindrops and from the overflow of ponded surface water through knickpoints, can be thought of as "competing". The most "successful" of these become discontinuous rills, which in their turn also compete, with a subset dominating to form continuous rills., Rill "success" will depend on both the position on the slope and microtopography. However, microtopography will itself be modified by erosional processes such as rill growth. This creates a feedback loop. Is it possible to use this perspective to model the evolution of hillslope rill networks? This study investigates the feasibility of such an approach. A novel model is described which applies simple rules to govern the iterative interaction between microtopography,: runoff routing and soil loss. Runoff is conceptualized as consisting of discrete "packets" so that a Lagrangian frame of reference is adopted, in contrast to the more usual Eulerian perspective. Results from several experiments are described, using both measured and synthetic microtopographic surfaces. The model appears able to reproduce many of the larger-scale "emergent" features of erosional systems. Planform rill networks appear realistic, as does rill depth, which increases both downslope and below confluences. Simulated rill spacing conforms with observed relationships to slope angle; the spatial balance between rill and interrill erosion similarly echoes observational evidence, as does total erosion and change in microtopographic roughness. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
 
Favis-Mortlock, D. T., et al. (2000). "Emergence and erosion: a model for rill initiation and development." Hydrological Processes 14(11-12): 2173-2205.
Soil erosion by overland flow, resulting from infiltration-excess rainfall, generates rill networks on hillslope areas. The way in which these networks emerge and develop suggests that hillslope erosion functions as a self-organizing dynamic system. Based upon this argument, a model for soil erosion (RillGrow 1) has been developed: this operates at the spatial scale of raindrops and microtopography. In this paper the second generation of the model (RillGrow 2) is described and applied to four different soil surfaces. Results suggest that, even at this early stage in its development, RillGrow 2 is capable of replicating the successes of the earlier model and in some cases of extending them. The success of both models suggests that this self-organizing view of rill generation may capture some fundamental aspects of the operation of real erosional systems. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Fedora, M. A. and R. L. Beschta (1989). "Storm runoff simulation using an Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) model." Journal of Hydrology 112: 121-133.
Feist, B. E., et al. (2003). "The influence of scale on salmon habitat restoration priorities." Animal Conservation 6: 271-282.
Habitat loss and alteration is the leading cause of species ’ declines world--wide,therefore habitat
restoration and protection is a prominent conservation strategy.Despite obvious connections between
habitat and threatened or endangered species,conservationists have been hard pressed explicitly to link
abundance or population health with habitat attributes.Given that habitat relationships with species are
often characterized at a spatial scale that does not account for the functional relationships between habitat
and populations,it is not surprising that the habitat –population conundrum persists.In order to explore
the in fluence of spatial scale on the apparent relationship between habitat and populations,we examined
the relationship between GIS-based habitat data and spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus
tshawytscha )redd (spawning nests built by females)densities in the Salmon River basin,Idaho,at two
very different spatial scales:stream reach and watershed.Redd density was strongly correlated with
climate,geology,wetlands and terrain.However,our stream-reach scale models provided poor predictive
power compared with the watershed scale models.Based on these results,we conclude that our perception
of which habitat attributes were important was clearly a function of our scale of observation,and that
restoration efforts should focus on conditions at the watershed or landscape scale when attempting to do
local or reach scale restoration projects.
 
Feller, W. (1966). An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications. New York, John Wiley.
Fenn, C. R. and A. M. Gurnell (1987). Proglacial Channel Processes. Glacio-fluvial Sediment Transfer. A. M. Gurnell and M. J. Clark, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.: 423-495.
Ferguson, R. (1987). Hydraulic and sedimentary controls of channel pattern. River Channels: Environment and Process. K. Richards. New York, Basil Blackwell Inc.: 129-158.
Ferguson, R. (2005). "Estimating critical stream power for bedload transport calculations in gravel-bed rivers." Geomorphology 70(2005): 33-41.
Ferguson, R. I. (1986). "Hydraulics and hydraulic geometry." Progress  in Physical Geography 10(1): 1-31.
Ferguson, R. I. (1994). "Critical discharge for entrainment of poorly sorted gravel." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 19: 179-186.
Ferguson, R. I. (1998). "Tracer-pebble movement along a concave river profile: Virtual velocity in relation to grain size and shear stress " Water Resources Research 34(8): 2031-2038.
Ferguson, R. I., et al. (2002). "Mobility of river tracer pebbles over different timescales." Water Resources Research 38(5).
Ferguson, R. I., et al. (2006). "River system discontinuities due to lateral inputs: generic styles and controls." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31: 1149-1166.
In alluvial river systems, lateral inputs of water and/or sediment at junctions or undercut
hillsides can disrupt what would otherwise be smooth downstream trends in mainstream
bed elevation, channel gradient, and bed grain size. Generic styles of mainstream res-ponse
to lateral inputs are investigated using a one-dimensional sediment routing model
with multiple grain size fractions. Numerical experiments isolate the effects of three para-meters:
ratio of tributary to mainstream water flux (QR), ratio of tributary to mainstream
bedload flux (FR), and ratio of tributary to mainstream bedload diameter (DR). The
findings are not unduly sensitive to the choice of initial conditions or to approximations
made in the model. The primary distinction is between junctions that aggrade, causing
local profile convexity with interrupted downstream fining, and junctions that degrade.
The immediate effects of aggradation extend further upstream than downstream, whereas
degradation is much more subdued and has no upstream impact. Aggradation is typical of
coarse inputs (DR >>>>>2), and degradation of fine inputs (DR <<<<<1), but very high ratios of QR
to FR also promote degradation. Both aggrading and degrading junctions can lead to a
change in mainstream bed grain size well below the junction, with higher ratios of QR to
FR producing a coarser distal bed. The effect of a tributary reflects the interplay between
additional bed load and additional discharge to transport it.
 
Ferguson, R. I. and T. B. Hoey (2002). "Long-term slowdown of river tracer pebbles: Generic models and implications for interpreting short-term tracer studies." Water Resources Research 38(8): doi:10.1029/2001WR000637, 002002.
Ferguson, R. I. and C. Paloa (1997). "Bias and precision of percentiles of bulk grain size distributions." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 22: 1061-1077.
Percentiles such as D 50 and D 84 , calculated from weights retained on different sieves, are widely used to characterize grain size distributions (GSDs) of bulk samples of sedimentary deposits or sediment fluxes. The sampling variability of such percentiles is not well known, and few sampling guidelines exist for reliable characterization of GSDs. We report results from computer sampling experiments on the variability of sample percentiles in different-sized samples from populations with a log-normal GSD by weight and different sorting coefficients. Sample sizes are scaled by the volume of a median-sized grain so that results can be applied to any log-normal GSD. Sampling is random for the GSD by number that is equivalent to a specified GSD by weight. Results show important differences from standard sampling theory applicable to pebble-count GSDs. In small bulk samples all percentiles, including the median, are underestimated (more so for smaller samples, coarser percentiles and poorer sorting), and precision does not improve with the square root of sample size until fairly large sample sizes are exceeded. Non-dimensional equations fitted by eye to the results give good approximations to expected bias and precision in any percentile from 50 to 95 for any given sample size and population sorting coefficient. They are inverted to estimate the sample size required to avoid significant bias, or achieve specified precision, in any percentile of interest given estimates of the population D 50 and sorting coefficient. Target sample sizes are sometimes considerably smaller, but in other circumstances larger, than suggested by previous guidelines relating to estimation of the entire grain size distribution. Bias is likely in small samples of river bedload and good precision requires very large samples of poorly sorted gravel deposits.
 
Ferguson, R. I. and S. J. Wathen (1998). "Tracer-pebble movement along a concave river profile: Virtual velocity in relation to grain size and shear stress." Water Resources Research 34(8): 2031-2038.
Ferreira, A. J. D., et al. (1997). "Sediment and solute yield in forest ecosystems affected by fire and rip-ploughing techniques, central Portugal; a plot and catchment analysis approach." Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 22(3-4): 309-314.
Ferrier, K. L., et al. (2005). "Erosion rates over millennial and decadel timescales at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek, Northern California Coast Ranges." Earth Surface Process and Landforms 30: 1025-1038.
Ferro, V. (1997). "Further remarks on a ditributed approach to sediment delivery." Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques 42(5): 633-647.
Ferro, V., et al. (2001). "Monitoring and predicting sediment yield in a small Sicilian basin." Transactions of the ASAE 44(3): 585-595.
Ferro, V. and M. Minacapilli (1995). "Sediment delivery processes at basin scale." Hydrological Sciences Journal/Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques 40(6): 703-718.
Since eroded sediments are produced from different sources distributed throughout a basin, sediment delivery processes at basin scale have to be modelled by a spatially distributed approach. In this paper a new theoretically based relationship is proposed for evaluating the sediment delivery ratio, SDR sub(i), of each morphological unit, i, into which a basin is divided. Then, using the sediment balance equation written for the basin outlet, a relationship between the basin sediment delivery ratio, SDR sub(w) and the SDR sub(i) is deduced. This relationship is shown to be independent of the soil erosion model used. Finally, a morphological criterion for estimating a coefficient, beta , is proposed.
 
Ferro, V. and P. Porto (2000). "Sediment Delivery Distributed (SEDD) Model."
Because eroded sediments are produced from different sources throughout a basin, it is often advantageous to model sediment delivery processes at basin scale using a spatially distributed approach. In this paper, a sediment delivery distributed (SEDD) model applicable at morphological unit scale, into which a basin is divided, is initially proposed. The model is based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), in which different expressions of the erosivity and topographic factors are considered, coupled with a relationship for evaluating the sediment delivery ratio of each morphological unit. Then the SEDD model is calibrated by sediment yield and rainfall and runoff measurements carried out, at annual and event scales, in three small Calabrian experimental basis. At event scale, the analysis showed that a good agreement between measured and calculated basin sediment yields can be obtained using the simple rainfall erosivity factor; the agreement is independent of the selected equations for estimating the topographic factors. The analysis developed at annual scale showed that the model reliability increases from the event scale to the annual scale. Finally, a Monte Carlo technique was used for evaluating the effects of the uncertainty of the model parameters on calculated sediment yield.
 
Ferro, V., et al. (1998). "Testing a distributed approach for modelling sediment delivery." Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques 43(3): 425-442.
Fiksdal, A. J. and M. J. Brunengo (1981). Forest Slope Stability Project, Washington Department of Natural Resources: 1-61.
Finlay, P. J., et al. (1999). "Landslide risk assessment: prediction of travel distance." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 36: 556-562.
The Geotechnical Engineering Office of Hong Kong database of landslides for the period 1984–1993,
containing over 3000 landslide records, and data for major landslides before this period were made available for a
landslide risk assessment study. Data from over 1100 of these landslides in man-modified slopes were collated,
processed, and analyzed statistically. Multiple regression models, based on slope geometry, were developed for the
prediction of landslide travel on a horizontal surface below the slope. Although developed for slopes in Hong Kong,
the models can be applied in similar geological situations (weathered granite and other weathered volcanics) and are
suited for landslide risk zoning in areas below man-modified slopes and for the assessment of risks from individual
cuts and fills.
 
Finlayson, D. P., and D. R. Montgomery (2003). "Modeling large-scale fluvial erosion in geographic information systems." Geomorphology 53: 147-164.
Finnegan NJ, G. R., DR Montgomery, and B Hallet (2005). "Controls on the channel width of rivers: implications for modeling fluvial incision of bedrock." Geology 33(3): 229-232.
Finney, M. A. (1995). "The Missing Tail and Other Considerations for the Use of Fire History Models." Int. J. Wildland Fire 5(4): 197-202.
Fisher, R. V. (1971). "Features of Coarse-Grained, High Concentration Fluids and their Deposits." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 41: 916-927.
Fisher, S. G. (1997). "Creativity, idea generation, and the functional morphology of streams." Journal of North American Benthological Society 16(2): 305-318.
Fisher, S. G. (2000). "Book Review of "River ecology and management: Lessons from the Pacific coastal ecoregion"." Limnol. Oceanogr. 45(6): 1445.
Fisher, S. G., et al. (2007). "Functional Ecomorphology: Feedbacks between Form and Function in Fluvial Landscape Ecosystems." Geomorphology 89: 84-96.
Fisher, S. G., et al. (2002). "Landscape challenges to ecosystem thinking: creative flood and drought in the American Southwest." Scientia Marina 65(suppl 2): 181-192.
Flanagan, D. C., J.S. Ascough, A. D. Nicks, M.A. Nearing, and J.M. Laflen (1995). "Ch.1 An overview of the WEPP model."
Flanagan, D. C., C.S. Renschler, and T.A. Cochrane (2000). Application of the WEPP model with digital geographic information. 4th International Conference  on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling: Problems, Prospects and Research Needs., Banff, Alberta, Canada, September 2-8, 2000.
Flanagan, D. C., and M.A. Nearing (2000). "Sediment particle sorting on hillslope profiles in the WEPP model." Transactions of the ASAE 43(3): 573-583.
Flanagan, D. C., J.R. Frankenburger, C.S. Renschler, J.M. Laflen, and B.A. Engel (2001). Simulating small watersheds with Water Erosion Prediction Project technology. Soil Erosion Research for the 21st Century, Honolulu, HI, ASAE.
Flanagan, S. A., et al. (1998). Methods for Inventory and Environmental Risk Assessment of Road Drainage Crossings, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: Technology and Development Program: 45.
Flannigan, M., K. Logan, B. Amiro, W. Skinner, and B. Stocks (2005). "Future area burned in Canada." Climatic Change 72(1-2): 1-16.
Fleener, G. B. (1997). Boulder, University of Colorado.
Fleishman, E. and R. Mac Nally (2002). "Topographic Determinants of Faunal Nestedness in Great Basin Butterfly Assemblages: Applications to Conservation Planning." Conservation Biology 16(2): 422-429.
Fleming, C. A. (1973). The Quaternary Record of New Zealand and Australia Quaternary Studies. R. P. Suggate and M. M. Cresswell: 1-20.
Flenniken, M., et al. (2001). "Hydrologic responses of a montane riparian ecosystem following cattle use." Journal of Range Management 54(5): 567-574.
Riparian areas link streams with their terrestrial catchments and decrease water pollution by trapping sediments from upland sources before they reach streams or lakes. Livestock grazing in riparian areas is a controversial practice. If not properly managed, cattle can cause degradation to both the riparian zone and adjacent water body. Vegetative, soil microtopographical, microchannel and hydrograph parameters were measured in a montane riparian community in northern Colorado to quantify the effects of cattle on overland flow and runoff characteristics. Treatments were cattle grazing plus trampling. cattle trampling, mowing, and a control. Water was applied to plots (3 m x 10 in) at a rate of 100 mm hr(-1) using a rainfall simulator. Concurrently, overland flow was introduced at the upper end of the plots at an equivalent rate of 25 mm hr(-1). A high intensity-short duration grazing treatment was used for the cattle-treated plots. Reduction in vegetation stem density and aboveground biomass by cattle decreased microchannel sinuosity and drainage density. Cattle-treated plots had greater now velocities and depths in microchannels compared with mowed and control plots. Reduced stem density and aboveground biomass by grazing left fewer obstacles to divert flows, which decreased microchannel sinuosity and drainage density. Flows were concentrated into fewer microchannels with deeper flows. Microchannel characteristics were not significant factors affecting total runoff. Stem density and rainfall intensity were the most important factors in predicting runoff characteristics and total runoff. Results from this study have improved our understanding of now and runoff processes following cattle use of a riparian ecosystem.
 
Flint, R. F. (?). Overall View of Late-Cenozoic Climate and Glaciation Glacial and Quaternary Geology. New York, London, Sydney, Toronto, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: 1-26.
Flitcroft, R. L. (2007). Regions to Streams: Spatial and Temporal Variation in Stream Occupancy Patterns of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) on the Oregon Coast. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife. Corvalis, OR, Oregon State University. Ph.D.: 189.
Aquatic ecological investigation is expanding to encompass considerations of
multiple scales across large landscapes. Much of the analysis included in this work
focuses specifically on coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in multiple subbasins on
the Oregon coast. Coho salmon were chosen for an investigation of spatial scales,
network connections, and life history stages due to their broad distribution on the
Oregon coast, and abundant data describing their distribution, habitat needs, behavior,
and survival. Chapter 2 introduces dynamic network topology (DNT) as a framework
for analysis and interpretation of aquatic obligate species. DNT is based on the
premise that in-stream habitats change in form and organization over time, and native
aquatic species are adapted to those changes through movement and life history
diversity. Chapter 3 analyzes juvenile coho salmon density and stream network
occupancy at three spatial scales (site, patch, and subbasin). The site scale analysis
indicated that combining network and traditional in-stream habitat metrics (i.e.,
substrate and habitat juxtaposition variables) are most effective at describing juvenile
coho salmon density. Patch sizes of juvenile coho salmon were defined using
variograms. Variogram shape indicated that a nested spatial structure may be present
in larger subbasins, indicating overlapping patterns of juvenile stream use. At the
subbasin scale, stream network occupancy by juvenile coho salmon was shown to vary
over time within subbasins, and appeared to increase or decrease similarly to the size
of the adult spawning run. In chapter 3, two-tier Bayesian hierarchical models were
applied to adult (subbasin and basin scales) and juvenile (site and subbasin scales)
coho salmon in an attempt to combine spatial scales that might be influential at each
life history stage. The best fitting adult model included the percent of large trees in the
riparian zone at the subbasin scale with mean annual precipitation at the basin scale.
The best fitting juvenile model included three variables, percent sand, stream order,
and network distance to spawning habitat which mirrors the result of modeling efforts
in Chapter 3. Multiple spatial scales and the framework of a stream network were
informative at detecting patterns and interactions among scales and life history stages
of coho salmon.
 
Floras, S. A., and I.D. Sgouras (1999). "Use of geoinformation techniques in identifying and mapping areas of erosion in a hilly landscape of central Greece." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 1(1): 68-77.
Flores, A. N., B.P. Bledsoe, C.O.Cuhciyan, and E.E. Wohl (2006). "Channel-reach morphology dependence on energy, scale, and hydroclimatic processes with implicaltions for prediction using geospatial data." Water Resources Research 42: WO6412, doi:6410.1029/2005WR004226.
Flores, A. N., et al. (2006). "Channel-reach morphology dependence on energy, scale, and hydroclimatic processes with implications for prediction using geospatial data." Water Resources Research 42: W06412.
Channel types found in mountain drainages occupy characteristic but intergrading
ranges of bed slope that reflect a dynamic balance between erosive energy and channel
boundary resistance. Using a classification and regression tree (CART) modeling
approach, we demonstrate that drainage area scaling of channel slopes provides better
discrimination of these forms than slope alone among supply- and capacity-limited sites.
Analysis of 270 stream reaches in the western United States exhibiting four common
mountain channel types reveals that these types exist within relatively discrete ranges of
an index of specific stream power. We also demonstrate associations among regional
interannual precipitation variability, discharge distribution skewness, and means of the
specific stream power index of step-pool channels. Finally, we discuss a conceptual
methodology for predicting ecologically relevant morphologic units from digital elevation
models at the network scale based on the finding that channel types do not exhibit equal
energy dissipation.
 
Florinsky, I. V. (1998). "Accuracy of local topographic variables derived from digital elevation models." Int. J. Geographical Information Science 12(1): 47-61.
We study the accuracy of data on some local topographic attributes
derived from digital elevation models (DEMs). First, we carry out a test for the
precision of four methods for calculation of partial derivatives of elevations. We
® nd that the Evans method is the most precision algorithm of this kind. Second,
we produce formulae for root mean square errors of four local topographic
variables (gradient, aspect, horizontal and vertical landsurface curvatures), provided
that these variables are evaluated with the Evans method. Third, we demonstrate
that mapping is the most convenient and pictorial way for the practical
implementation of the formulae derived. A DEM of a part of the Kursk Region
(Russia) is used as an example. We ® nd that high errors of data on local topographic
variables are typical for ¯ at areas. Results of the study can be used to
improve landscape investigations with digital terrain models.
 
 
Florsheim, J. L., E.A. Keller, and D.W. Best (1991). "Fluvial sediment transport in response to moderate storm flows following chaparral wildfire, Ventura County, southern California." Geological Society of America Bulletin 103(504-511).
Florsheim, J. L. (2004). "Side-valley tributary fans in high-energy river floodplain environments: sediment sources and depositional processes, Navarro River basin, California." Geological Society of America Bulletin 116(7/8): 923-937.
Side-valley tributary fans within the
main axial valley river fl oodplain system are
integral components of the sediment assemblage
characterizing fl oodplains in the highenergy
Navarro River basin, California.
Laboratory analyses of subsurface core and
auger samples from four study sites reveal
that sediment-size distributions within the
fl oodplain are controlled by spatial and
temporal variation in sediment sources
and depositional processes. Over 75% of
sediment within individual lower-fan strata
are poorly sorted and include gravel clasts
inferred to be contributions from the sidevalley
tributary, whereas remaining strata
are composed of fi ne sediment less than 2
mm without gravel. High-water marks indicate
that portions of the side-valley tributary
fans are episodically inundated by axial valley
overbank fl ow, a factor that infl uences
fan relief and profi le. Thus, two dominant
sources supply sediment to this transitional
environment: side-valley tributaries and
the axial valley river. The transport and
depositional processes that supply sediment
to the fans operate under three conditions:
(1) Tributary debris or fl uvial fl ows, and
selective entrainment of fi nes by fan surface
fl ows, deposit sediment when there is
no overbank fl ow from the axial channel;
(2) overbank fl ow deposits sediment derived
from the axial valley river when there is
no tributary input; and (3) tributary fl ows
deposit sediment while the fl oodplain is
inundated by fl oods from the axial valley
river. The mixing and interlayering of sediment
from these disparate sources within the
active fl oodplain illustrate the signifi cance of
both hillslope-fl oodplain and channel-fl oodplain
interactions in high-energy fl uvial
systems with fl oodplains.
 
Flugel, W. A. (2000). System-related development of regional hydrological model systems. Wasser and Boden 52(3): pp. 14-17;   2000, Blackwell Wissenschaft-Verlag GmbH;   Blackwell Verlag GmbH: Kurfurstendamm 57, D-10707 Berlin, Germany.
An understanding of process dynamics, hydrological systems analyses, an appropriate regionalization strategy for aerial distribution of a river basin, and a development toolkit are prerequisites for the design of hydrological modelling systems using an object oriented approach. These components and the concept of Response Units (RUs) applied and introduced within the Object Modelling System (OMS) are discussed. Rus are three dimensional modelling entities delineated within a GIS and are preserving the catchment's physiographic heterogeneity controlling its vertical and lateral dynamics of water and solute transport. Applied within OMS they represent distributed object classes and the downscaling regionalization is based on the transfer of object information from the Rus down to their single areas. The hydrological process dynamics is thus represented in OMS by process objects applied on the RUs and fluxes of water and solutes are routed from the RU-areas towards the receiving stream. Realised by OMS process modules the RU concept open up object oriented synergetic potential such as the programming language Java for hydrological modelling and the design of decision support system (DSS) for the sustainable management of scare and valuable water resources.
 
Folt, C. L., et al. (1998). "Implications of  temporal and spatial scale for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) research." Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci 55(Suppl. 1): 9-12.
Fonda, R. W. (1974). "Forest succession in relation to river terrace development in Olympic National Park, Washington." Ecology 55: 927-942.
Fontana, G. D. a. L. M. (2003). "Slope-area relationships and sediment dynamics in two alpine streams." Hydrological Processes 17: 73-87.
Foody, G. M., and P.M. Atkinson (2002). Uncertainty in remote sensing and GIS, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chicester, England.
Ford, E. D. (2000). Scientific Methods for Ecological Research. Cambridge (United Kingdom), Cambridge University Press.
Forest Practices Code of British Columbia (1996). Channel Assessment Procedure Guidebook Forest Practices Code of British Columbia: 37.
Forest Practices Code of British Columbia (1999). Coastal Watershed Assessment Procedure Guidebook (CWAP) Interior Watershed Assessment Procedure Guidebook (IWAP) Forest Practices Code of British Columbia: 41.
Forest Practices Code of British Columbia (1999). Mapping and Assessing Terrain Stability Guidebook Forest Practice Code of British Columbia: 36.
Forman, R. T. T. and M. Gordon (1986). Landscape Ecology. New York, John Wiley and Sons.
Foster, D. R., et al. (1998). "Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large, infrequent forest disturbances." Ecosystems 1: 497-510.
We review and compare well-studied examples of
five large, infrequent disturbances (LIDs)—fire, hurricanes,
tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, and
floods—in terms of the physical processes involved,
the damage patterns they create in forested landscapes,
and the potential impacts of those patterns
on subsequent forest development. Our examples
include the 1988 Yellowstone fires, the 1938 New
England hurricane, the 1985 Tionesta tornado, the
1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, and the 1993
Mississippi floods. The resulting landscape patterns
are strongly controlled by interactions between the
specific disturbance, the abiotic environment (especially
topography), and the composition and structure
of the vegetation at the time of the disturbance.
The very different natures of these interactions yield
distinctive temporal and spatial patterns and demand
that ecologists increase their knowledge of
the physical characteristics of disturbance processes.
Floods and fires can occur over a long period,
whereas volcanic eruptions and wind-driven events
often last for no more than a few hours or days.
Tornadoes and floods produce linear patterns with
sharp edges, but fires, volcanic eruptions, and hurricanes
can affect broader areas, often with gradual
transitions of disturbance intensity. In all cases, the
evidence suggests that LIDs produce enduring legacies
of physical and biological structure that influence
ecosystem processes for decades or centuries.
 
Foster, G. R., T.E. Toy, and K.G. Renard (2003). Comparison of the USLE, RUSLE1.06 and RUSLE2 for applications to highly disturbed lands. First interagency Conference on Research in Watersheds, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Washington, D.C.
Fox, M. and S. Bolton (2007). "A regional and geomorphic reference for quantities and volumes of instream wood in unmanaged basins in Washington State." Journal of Fisheries Management, American Fisheries Society 27: 342-359.
Fox, M. and S. Bolton (2007). "A regional and geomorphic reference for quantities and volumes of instream wood in unmanaged forested basins of Washington state." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 27: 342-359.
We collected field data on instream wood quantities and volumes from 150 stream segments
draining unmanaged basins within Washington State to develop reference conditions for restoration and
management. The wood loads in these streams provide a reference for management since it is assumed that
they incorporate the range of conditions to which salmonids and other species have adapted. We also used
these data to evaluate existing standards for large wood in streams. Large wood is an important component of
salmonid habitat, and stream channel assessments and restoration and enhancement efforts often associate
habitat quality for salmon Oncorhynchus spp. with the quantity and volume of woody debris; however, the
wood targets currently used to assist resource managers typically do not account for variations in quantity or
volume owing to differences in geomorphology, forest zones, or disturbance regimes. For restoring the
appropriate range of conditions in salmon habitat, we offer a percentile wood distribution of natural and
unmanaged wood-loading ranges based on regional and geomorphic variation for the purpose of
reestablishing central tendencies. We recommend that streams in a degraded state (e.g., below the 25th
percentile) be managed for an interim target at or above the 75th percentile until the basin-scale wood loads
achieve these central tendencies. Based on the sample distribution, these reference conditions are applicable to
streams with bank-full widths between 1 and 100 m, gradients between 0.1% and 47%, elevations between 91
and 1,906 m, drainage areas between 0.4 and 325 km2, glacial and rain- or snow-dominated origins, forest
types common to the Pacific Northwest, and several other distinguishing physical and regional classifications.
 
Fraidenburg, M. E. (1989). "The New Politics of Natural Resources: Negotiating a Shift Toward Privatization of Natural Resource Policymaking in Washington State." The Northwest Environmental Journal 5: 211-240.
Franchini, M., Galeati, G., and Berra, S. (1998). "Global optimization techniques for the calibration of conceptual rainfall-runoff models." Hydrological Sciences Journal/Journal des Sciences Hydrologiques 43(3): 443-458.
Franklin, J. F. (1979). Vegetation of the Douglas fir region. Forest soils of the Douglas fir region, Pullman, WA, Washington State University Cooperative Extension.
Franklin, J. F. and C. T. Dyrness (1973). Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington, Pacific Northwest Forest Range Experimental Station: 417.
Franklin, J. F. and C. T. Dyrness (1988). Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington. Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University Press.
Franklin, J. F. and R. T. T. Forman (1987). "Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: Ecological consequences and principles." Landscape Ecology 1(1): 5-18.
Franklin, J. F., et al. (1987). "Tree Death as an Ecological Process." BioScience 37(8): 550-556.
Franklin, J. F. and T. A. Spies (?). Composition, function, and structure of Old-Growth Douglas-Fir Forests, U.S. Forest Service: 71-80.
Franks, C. A., et al. (2002). Hydraulic habitat in confluences: an ecological perspective on confluence hydraulics. The Structure, Function and Management Implications of Fluvial Sedimentary Systems. F. J. Dyer, M. C. Thoms and J. M. Olley, International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 276: 61-67.
The near-bed hydraulic characteristics of a confluence were monitored over a range of stages to assess the variability of hydraulic habitat and its influence over distributions of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Spatial variability of hydraulic characteristics was observed in the confluence, and there is some suggestion from macroinvertebrate data that the hydraulic conditions influence the distribution of macroinvertebrates in the confluence
 
Fransen, B. R., et al. (2006). "A logistic regression model for predicting the upstream extent of fish occurrence based on geographical information systems data." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 26: 960-975.
Regulations governing human activities in streams and riparian zones frequently differ
depending on whether or not a stream reach supports fish. Fish presence or absence is usually determined by
sampling or by assuming the presence of fish if the stream exhibits certain physical characteristics. Field
surveys of fish occurrence in streams are time consuming and expensive. Inference of fish presence from
simple thresholds of physical attributes, such as gradient or channel width alone, is inaccurate. We attempted
to improve the accuracy and efficiency of this determination by developing a geographical information
systems (GIS)-based predictive model. A 10-m digital elevation model incorporated field data on fish
distribution from 517 streams in western Washington State and GIS-derived representations of the physical
characteristics of stream networks. A model predicting the upstream extent of fish occurrence was derived
using logistic regression models coupled with a heuristic ‘‘stopping rule.’’ Candidate variables included stream
gradient, upstream basin area, elevation, and mean annual precipitation. When assessed against independent
survey data, 91.9% of the occupied fish habitat was correctly classified by the model. Errors were generally
small, but occasional large errors did occur and were most frequently associated with barriers to fish
movement. Smaller errors occurred in marginal habitats, streams of low topographic relief, and streams that
originated from headwater ponds. Use of this type of model, coupled with targeted field survey in areas most
likely to be associated with model error, would greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of current
classification schemes.
 
Franti, T. G., et al. (1996). "Modeling the effects of incorporated residue on rill erosion .1. Model development and sensitivity analysis." Transactions of the ASAE 39(2): 535-542.
Frazer, L. N. and M. K. Sen (1980). "Kirchhoff-Helmholtz reflection seismograms in a laterally inhomogeneous multi-layered elastic medium - I. Theory." Geophys. J.R. astr. Soc. 80: 121-147.
Fread, D. L. (1988). Breach: An Erosion Model for Earthen Dam Failures (DRAFT). Silver Spring, Maryland, National Weather Service: 1-29.
Fread, D. L. (?). "Dam-Breach Erosion Modeling."
Fredlund, D. G. and J. Krahn (1977). "Comparison of slope stability methods of analysis." Canadian Geotechnical Journal 14: 429-439.
Fredriksen, F. L. (1970). Erosion and Sedimentation Following Road Construction and Timber Harvest on Unstable Soils in three small Western Oregon Watersheds. Portland, Oregon, U.S. Foreest Service: 1-15.
Fredriksen, R. L. (1970). Erosion and sedimentation following road construction and timber harvest on unstable soils in three small western Oregon watersheds, U.S. Department of Agriculture
Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Forest Service: 1-15.
Freeman, M. C., et al. (2007). "Hydrologic connectivity and the contribution of stream headwaters to ecological integrity at regional scales." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(1): 5-14.
Cumulatively, headwater streams contribute to maintaining hydrologic connectivity and ecosystem
integrity at regional scales. Hydrologic connectivity is the water-mediated transport of matter, energy and
organisms within or between elements of the hydrologic cycle. Headwater streams compose over two-thirds of
total stream length in a typical river drainage and directly connect the upland and riparian landscape to the
rest of the stream ecosystem. Altering headwater streams, e.g., by channelization, diversion through pipes,
impoundment and burial, modifies fluxes between uplands and downstream river segments and eliminates distinctive
habitats. The large-scale ecological effects of altering headwaters are amplified by land uses that alter
runoff and nutrient loads to streams, and by widespread dam construction on larger rivers (which frequently
leaves free-flowing upstream portions of river systems essential to sustaining aquatic biodiversity). We discuss
three examples of large-scale consequences of cumulative headwater alteration. Downstream eutrophication and
coastal hypoxia result, in part, from agricultural practices that alter headwaters and wetlands while increasing
nutrient runoff. Extensive headwater alteration is also expected to lower secondary productivity of river systems
by reducing stream-system length and trophic subsidies to downstream river segments, affecting aquatic communities
and terrestrial wildlife that utilize aquatic resources. Reduced viability of freshwater biota may occur
with cumulative headwater alteration, including for species that occupy a range of stream sizes but for which
headwater streams diversify the network of interconnected populations or enhance survival for particular life
stages. Developing a more predictive understanding of ecological patterns that may emerge on regional scales as
a result of headwater alterations will require studies focused on components and pathways that connect headwaters
to river, coastal and terrestrial ecosystems. Linkages between headwaters and downstream ecosystems
cannot be discounted when addressing large-scale issues such as hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and global losses
of biodiversity.
 
 
Freer, J., et al. (2002). "The role of bedrock topography on subsurface storm flow." Water Resources Research 38(12): doi:10.1029/2001WR000872, 002002.
Freese, F. (1960). "Testing Accuracy." Forest Science 6(2): 139-145.
Freeze, R. A., and R.L. Harlan (1969). "Blueprint for a physically based, digitally simulated hydrologic response model." Journal of Hydrology 9: 237-258.
Freeze, R. A. (1982). Hydrogeological Concepts in Stochiastic and Deterministic Rainfall-Runoff Predictions. Vancouver, British Columbia, University of British Columbia: 63-79.
Freeze, R. A. (1987). Modelling Interrelationships Between Climate, Hydrology, and Hydrogeology and the Development of Slopes. Slope Stability. M. G. Anderson and K. S. Richards. Vancouver, Canada, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: 381-403.
Friedman, J. H. (2002). "Stochastic gradient boosting." Computional Statistics and Data Analysis 38(4): 367-378.
Gradient boosting constructs additive regression models by sequentially fitting a simple parameterized function (base learner) to current “pseudo”-residuals by least squares at each iteration. The pseudo-residuals are the gradient of the loss functional being minimized, with respect to the model values at each training data point evaluated at the current step. It is shown that both the approximation accuracy and execution speed of gradient boosting can be substantially improved by incorporating randomization into the procedure. Specifically, at each iteration a subsample of the training data is drawn at random (without replacement) from the full training data set. This randomly selected subsample is then used in place of the full sample to fit the base learner and compute the model update for the current iteration. This randomized approach also increases robustness against overcapacity of the base learner.
 
Friedman, J. M. and G. T. Auble (1999). "Mortality of riparian box elder from sediment mobilization and extended inundation." Regulated Rivers-Research & Management 15(5): 463-476.
To explore how high flows limit the streamward extent of riparian vegetation we quantified the effects of sediment mobilization and extended inundation on box elder (Acer negundo) saplings along the cobble-bed Gunnison River in Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, Colorado, USA. We counted and aged box elders in 144 plots of 37.2 m(2), and combined a hydraulic model with the hydrologic record to determine the maximum shear stress and number of growing-season days inundated for each plot in each year of the record. We quantified the effects of the two mortality factors by calculating the extreme values survived during the lifetime of trees sampled in 1994 and by recounting box elders in the plots following a high flow in 1995. Both mortality factors can be modeled as threshold functions; box elders are killed either by inundation for more than 85 days during the growing season or by shear stress that exceeds the critical value for mobilization of the underlying sediment particles. Construction of upstream reservoirs in the 1960s and 1970s reduced the proportion of the canyon bottom annually cleared of box elders by high flows. Furthermore, because the dams decreased the magnitude of high flows more than their duration, flow regulation has decreased the importance of sediment mobilization relative to extended inundation. We use the threshold functions and cross-section data to develop a response surface predicting the proportion of the canyon bottom cleared at any combination of flow magnitude and duration. This response surface allows vegetation removal to be incorporated into quantitative multi-objective water management decisions. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
 
Frissell, C. A., W.J. Liss, C.E. Warren, and M.D. Hurley (1986). "A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: viewing streams in a watershed context." Environmental Management 10(2): 199-214.
Frissell, C. A. and D. Bayles (1996). "Ecosystem Management and the Conservation of Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecological Integrity." Water Resources Bulletin 32(2): 229-240.
Frissell, C. A., et al. (1986). "A Hierarchial Framework for Stream Habitat Classification: Viewing Streams in a Watershed Context " Enivironmental Management 10(2): 199-214.
Frissell, C. A., et al. (1986). "A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: Viewing streams in a watershed context." Environmental Management 10: 199-214.
Frissell, C. A. and R. K. Nawa (1992). "Incidence and Causes of Physical Failure of Artificial Habitat Structures in Streams of Western Oregon and Washington " North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12: 182-197.
Fritts, H. C. (1981). Statistical climatic reconstructions from tree-ring widths. Climatic variations and variability: facts and theories, D. Reidel Publishing Company: 135-153.
Fritz, K., M., et al. (2006). Field Operations Manual for Assessing the Hydrologic Permanence and Ecological Condition of Headwater Streams. EPA/600/R-06/126. Washington DC, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development.
Fritz, K., M., et al. (2008). "Physical indicators of hydrologic permanence in forested headwater streams." Journal of the American Benthological Society 27(3): 690-704.
Recent court cases have questioned whether all headwater streams are jurisdictional waters
under the US Clean Water Act. Rapid field-based indicators of hydrologic permanence are needed for
making jurisdictional determinations. Our study objectives were to: 1) identify physical characteristics of
forested headwater streams that best distinguish perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral reaches and 2)
assess the applicability of existing rapid field-based tools for classifying hydrologic permanence across a
wide geographic range. We surveyed reach- and drainage-scale characteristics at 113 sites across 10 study
forests in the US. Streams in 4 core forests (61 core sites) were sampled over 2 consecutive years and were
used in model construction. Streams in 6 satellite forests (72 satellite sites) were used to validate the models
over a broader geographic range. Discriminant function models successfully differentiated hydrologic
permanence categories at core sites. Drainage area, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Headwater
Habitat Evaluation Index (HHEI), and the North Carolina Department of Water Quality Stream
Classification Method (NCSC) were strongly correlated with the discriminant function that separated
ephemeral from perennial and intermittent sites. Entrenchment ratio was the most consistent variable
discriminating intermittent from perennial sites across the core forests. The models had mixed results when
applied to the validation data set, but did classify correctly most intermittent and ephemeral sites.
Classification trees were used to assess broad regional applicability of existing rapid field-based protocols
and to identify important metrics. Scores from the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol Habitat Assessment, HHEI,
and NCSC all clearly distinguished ephemeral from intermittent and perennial sites, but no differences were
detected between intermittent and perennial sites across all sites. However, data from core sites do indicate
that a suite of physical variables can be used successfully to identify hydrologic permanence at regional
scales.
 
 
Froehlich, H. A. (?). Accumulation of Large Debris in Forest Streams Before and After Logging (DRAFT), Oregon State University: 1-8.
Front Range Round Table (2006). Living with Fire: protecting communities and restoring forests.
Frothingham, K., M. (2002). "A Multiscale Conceptual Framework for Integrated Ecogeomorphological Research to Support Stream Naturalization in the Agricultural Midwest." Environmental Management 29(1): 16-33.
Frye, J. C. (1973). "Pleistocene Succession of the Central Interior United States." Quaternary Research 3: 275-283.
Fryxell, F. M. and L. Horberg (1943). "Alpine Mudflows in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming." Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 54: 457-472.
Fukushima, M. (2001). "Salmonid habitat -- geomorphology relationships in low-gradient streams." Ecology 82(5): 1238-1246.
A link between stream geomorphology and lotic ecosystems was demon-strated
by quantitatively examining the precise locations of salmonid redds with respect to
the planform geometry of streams using a differential global positioning system. A total
stream distance of 59 km was surveyed in 17 streams, in which a total of 309 redds of
Sakhalin taimen (Hucho perryi) were recorded. The average size (6SD) of these redds was
227 6 60 cm in length and 122 6 42 cm in width. A meta-analysis of these data showed
that channel sinuosity was significantly greater at sites where Sakhalin taimen redds were
constructed than the average stream sinuosity. This salmonid preference for highly sinuous
reaches was detected when the sinuosity index was calculated at 50-m increments and
became insignificant at greater distance increments. This habitat–sinuosity relationship will
be more pronounced in streams with only moderately sinuous channels, less abundant large
woody debris, and higher spawner densities.
 
Fukushima, M., et al. (1998). "Estimation of eggs lost from superimposed pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbushcha) redds." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55: 618-625.
Fuller, M. (1991). Forest Fires. New York, Wiley.
Fullerton, A., et al. (in press). "Hydrologic connectivity for riverine fishes: measurement challenges and research opportunites." Freshwater Biology.
Fullerton, A. H., et al. (2006). "Regional patterns of riparian characteristics in the interior Columbia River basin, Northwestern USA: applications for restoration planning." Landscape Ecology 21: 1347-1360.
Recent declines in anadromous Pacific
salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) have been attributed,
in part, to degradation of freshwater habitat.
Because riparian areas directly affect instream habitat,
assessing riparian characteristics is essential for
predicting salmon habitat quality and for prioritizing
restoration projects. We quantified land use modification
of anadromous fish-bearing streams in the
interior Columbia River basin at multiple resolutions.
We identified riparian areas in several land
use and land cover classes using remotely sensed
data. We then interpreted aerial photographs at
random locations within each class to quantify
riparian modifications at a local (stream reach)
scale. Riparian areas in agricultural and urban areas
were significantly narrower ( 30 m, median) than
those in forested or shrub/grass areas ( 70 m). The
largest proportion of modified riparian areas occurred
in low-gradient streams with floodplains in
semi-arid ecoregions. Riparian vegetation in these
areas is unlikely to provide adequate in-stream
functions, making these areas a natural starting point
for restoration prioritization. We investigated how
existing riparian restoration projects were spatially
related to riparian land use and found that restoration
effort varied among subwatersheds. Effective
strategies for restoring high quality salmon habitat
will be watershed-specific and must restore natural
watershed processes. By using a hierarchical analysis
to identify regional strategies, restoration or
conservation activity can be focused in specific basins
and thereby increase the likelihood that efforts
will significantly improve habitat conditions for
listed salmonids.
 
Fullerton, A. H., et al. (2008). "How certain are salmon recovery forecasts? A watershed-scale sensitivity analysis." Environmental Modelling and Assessment.
Complex relationships between landscape and
aquatic habitat conditions and salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.)
populations make science-based management decisions
both difficult and essential. Due to a paucity of empirical
data, models characterizing these relationships are often
used to forecast future conditions. We evaluated uncertainties
in a suite of models that predict possible future habitat
conditions and fish responses in the Lewis River Basin,
Washington, USA. We evaluated sensitivities of predictions
to uncertainty in model parameters. Results were sensitive
to 60% of model parameters but substantially so (|partial
regression coefficients| >0.5) to <10%. We also estimated
accuracy of several predictions using field surveys. Observations
mostly fell within predicted ranges for riparian
shade and fine-sediment deposition, but large woody debris
estimates matched only half the time. We provide suggestions
to modelers for improving model accountability, and
describe how managers can incorporate prediction uncertainty
into decision-making, thereby improving the odds of
successful salmon habitat recovery
 
 
Fuquay, D. M. (1980). Forecasting Lighting Activity Level and Associated Weather. Ogden, Utah, US Forest Service: 30.
Furbish, D. J. (1978). The Stochiastic Structure of a High Mountain Stream. Geological Sciences, University of Colorado: 245.
Furbish, D. J. and R. M. Rice (1983). "Predicting landslides related to clearcut logging, northwestern California, U.S.A." Mountain Research and Development 3(3): 253-259.
Landslides related to clearcut logging are a significant source of erosion in the mountains of northwestern California. Forest managers, therefore, frequently must include assessments of landslide risk in their land-use plans. A quantitative method is needed to predict such risk over large areas of rugged mountainous terrain. From air photographs, data were collected of conditions associated with a sample of logging-related slides and randomly located stable sites. Discriminant analyses were used to develop an equation that distinguishes the two types of sites-slide and non-slide-with 81 percent accuracy. The equation can be used to provide an assessment of risk for undisturbed terrain. Results showed that post-logging failure is most likely to occur near actively scouring streams, just below major convex breaks of slope and within drainage depressions.
 
Furniss, M. J., et al. (1998). Response of Road-Stream Crossings to Large Flood Events in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California. San Dimas, California, USDA Forest Service: 14.
Gabet, E. J., and T. Dunne (2002). "Landslides on coastal sage-scrub and grssland hillslopes in a severe El Nino winter: The effects of vegetation conversion on sediment delivery." GSA Bulletin 114: 983-990.
Gabet, E. J. (2003). "Post-fire thin debris flows: sediment transport and numerical modelling." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28: 1341-1348.
Gabet, E. J. (2003). "Sediment transport by dry ravel." Journal of Geophysical Research 108(No.B1).
Gabet, E. J. and A. Bookter (2008). "A morphometric analysis of gullies scoured by post-fire progressively bulked debris flows in soutwest Montana, USA." Geomorphology 96: 298-309.
In the fall of 2001, an intense thunderstorm in southwest Montana triggered many debris flows in the burned area of Sleeping
Child Creek. In most instances, the debris flows cut deep gullies into previously unchannelized colluvial hollows and deposited
large volumes of sediment onto the valley floor. The presence of rill networks above the gullies as well as the absence of landslide
features indicate that the gullies were scoured by progressively bulked debris flows, a process in which dilute surface runoff
becomes increasingly more laden with sediment until it transforms into a debris flow. In this contribution, we present a
morphometric analysis of six of the gullies to better understand this relatively understudied process. We find that the locations of
the rill heads and gully heads conform to slope-area thresholds that are characteristic of erosion by overland flow. Our data also
suggest that the volumes of the debris flows increase exponentially with normalized drainage area, thus lending support to an
assumption used in a recently proposed debris flow incision law. Finally, the debris flow fans have been relatively unaltered since
deposition, suggesting that the valley may be currently aggrading while the hillslopes are being denuded.
 
Gabet, E. J. and T. Dunne (2002). "Landslides on coastal sage-scrub and grassland hillslopes in a severe El Niño winter: The effects of vegetation conversion on sediment delivery." Geological Society of America Bulletin 114(8): 983-990.
During the 1997–1998 El Niño, record rainfall triggered >150 shallow landslides within a 9.5 km2 area near Santa Barbara, California. They were studied to analyze the sediment delivery to valley floors from landslides in coastal sage scrub and converted grasslands. The conversion of coastal sage to grasslands, primarily to provide pasturage for cattle, is common in the region, and the landscape's response may affect water quality, reservoir infilling, and debris flow hazards. We explore the relationship between lateral- root reinforcement and landslide volume by developing a slope-stability analysis that incorporates root cohesion along the sides of the failure. The stability analysis correctly predicts an inverse relationship between landslide volume and hillslope angle in the sage. The volumes of failures in the grasslands do not vary systematically with slope and are generally smaller than those in the sage. From aerial-photograph analysis and field mapping, we find that there are 22.9 failures per square kilometer in the grasslands compared to 13.2 failures per square kilometer in the sage. Despite the lower failure density in the coastal sage, greater failure volumes and longer transport distances delivered more sediment to valley floors, with a specific volumetric flux of 2.8 × 10–2 m3·m–1 for this El Niño compared to 1.7 × 10–2 m3·m–1 in the grasslands. We conclude that the conversion from vegetation with stronger and deeper roots (coastal sage) to vegetation with weaker and shallower roots (grass) has caused a pulse of increased landsliding in the grasslands because the soils are currently too thick for the prevailing root reinforcement. We suggest that, over time, soils in the grassland hollows will become thinner as the evacuation by landslides is repeated until the landsliding rate declines to balance the soil supplied from local colluvium production and diffusive processes upslope.
 
Gabet, E. J. and T. Dunne (2003). "A stochastic sediment delivery model for a steep Mediterranean landscape." Water  Resources Research 39(9): 1237-1248.
Gabet, E. J. and P. Sternberg (2008). "The effects of vegetative ash on infiltration capacity, sediment transport, and the generation of progressively bulked debris flows." Geomorphology 101: 666-673.
Through the alteration of the physical characteristics of a landscape, such as the destruction of vegetation and
the formation of a hydrophobic layer, a fire can dramatically amplify erosion rates. On the basis of field
observations, it has been proposed that the deposition of a layer of ash on the ground surface can enhance the
erosion of mountainous terrain by surface runoff and might even be a necessary condition for the generation of
progressively bulked debris flows. In this study, a flume was constructed to investigate the role of ash in
increasing both the volume and the transport capacity of runoff. The experiments demonstrated that the
presence of ash on the soil surface reduces the ability of flowing water to infiltrate; this effect is even greater
when the ash has been pre-wetted. In addition, the ability of ash slurries to infiltrate decreases with increasing
ash concentration. The results also indicate that the transport capacity of runoff is enhanced by the
incorporation of ash into the flow because of the increased fluid density. However, the addition of ash reduces
the boundary Reynolds number such that, at high ash concentrations and with fine-grained sediment,
sediment transport declines as the flow becomes hydraulically smooth. The experimental results were also
used to evaluate the ability of steep flow fronts, a common characteristic of debris flows and flash floods, to
increase sediment transport rates. Finally, it is proposed that ash slurries may evolve into progressively bulked
debris flows through a positive feedback between fluid density, transport capacity, and erosivity.
 
Gabris, et al. (2003). "Land use change and gully formation over the last 200 years in a hilly catchment." Catena 50(2-4): 151-164.
Gacek Associates (1990). Smith Creek Timber Harvest Plan. Whatcom County, Washington, prepared by Gacek Associates for The Trillium Corporation: 96.
Galay, V. J., et al. (1987). River Bed Scour and Construction of Stone Riprap Protection Sediment Transport Gravel-Bed Rivers. C. R. Thorne, J. C. Bathurst and R. D. Hey, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Chapter 12.
Gallagher, M. R., and J. Doherty (2007). "Parameter interdependence and uncertainty induced by lumping in a hydrologic model." Water Resources Research 43(W05421, doi:10.1029/2006WR005347, 2007).
Gallant, J. C. and J. P. Wilson (1996). "Tapes-G: A grid-based terrain analysis program for the environmental sciences." Computers & Geosciences 22(7): 713-722.
Gallino, G. L. and T. C. Pierson (1984). The 1980 Polallie Creek Debris Flow and Subsequent Dam-break Flood, East Fork Hood River Basin, Oregon. Portland, Oregon, U.S. Geological Survey: 11-36.
Galster, R. W. (? (No year needed)). "Dams of Western Washington: Introduction - Early Projects." Engineering Geology 1: 165-172.
Galster, R. W. (? (No year needed)). "Erosion." Engineering Geology 1: 60-90.
Gangodagamage, C., et al. (2007). "Scaling in river corridor widths depicts organization in valley morphology." Geomorphology 91: 198-215.
Landscapes have been shown to exhibit numerous scaling laws from Horton's laws to more sophisticated scaling in topography
heights, river network topology and power laws in several geomorphic attributes. In this paper, we propose a different way of examining
landscape organization by introducing the “river corridor width” (lateral distance from the centerline of the river to the left and right
valley walls at a fixed height above the water surface) as one moves downstream. We establish that the river corridor width series,
extracted from 1 m LIDAR topography of a mountainous river, exhibit a rich multiscale statistical structure (anomalous scaling) which
varies distinctly across physical boundaries, e.g., bedrock versus alluvial valleys.We postulate that such an analysis, in conjunction with
field observations and physical modeling, has the potential to quantitatively relate mechanistic laws of valley formation to the statistical
signature that underlying processes leave on the landscape. Such relations can be useful in guiding field work (by identifying physically
distinct regimes from statistically distinct regimes) and advancing process understanding and hypothesis testing
 
Gangodagamage, C., et al. (2011). "Revisiting scaling laws in river basins: New considerations across hillslope and fluvial regimes." Water Resources Research 47(W07508): 12.
Increasing availability of high‐resolution (1 m) topography data and enhanced
computational processing power present new opportunities to study landscape
organization at a detail not possible before. Here we propose the use of “directed distance
from the divide” as the scale parameter (instead of Horton’s stream order or upstream
contributing area) for performing detailed probabilistic analysis of landscapes over a broad
range of scales. This scale parameter offers several advantages for applications in
hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology in that it can be directly related to length‐scale
dependent processes, it can be applied seamlessly across the hillslope and fluvial regimes,
and it is a continuous parameter allowing accurate statistical characterization (higher‐order
statistical moments) across scales. Application of this scaling formalism to three basins
in California demonstrates the emergence of three distinct geomorphic regimes of
divergent, highly convergent, and moderately convergent fluvial pathways, with notable
differences in their scaling relationships and in the variability, or spatial heterogeneity,
of topographic attributes in each regime. We show that topographic attributes, such as
slopes and curvatures, conditional on directed distance from the divide exhibit less
variability than those same attributes conditional on upstream contributing area,
thus affording a sharper identification of regime transitions and increased accuracy in
the scaling analysis.
 
Gangodagamage, C., et al. (2005). "River corridor geometry: Scaling relationships and confluence controls." EOS Transactions, Fall Meeting Suppliment 82(52): Abstract H33E-1421.
River corridor (valley) geometry is a topographic signature of tectonic and fluvial processes in a watershed. It is significantly affected by the tributary basins at confluences and its geometry influences the vegetation pattern and riverine habitat heterogeneity along the river reaches. An algorithm was developed to extract from LIDAR data the valley geometry and vegetation height along the whole river network as a function of distance downstream of the confluence, distance from the stream, and depth from the water surface. Based on those data and field observations from the Angelo Coast Reserve in the Eel river basin, CA, we propose metrics that quantify the "geomorphologic significance" of a tributary and we explore scaling relationships in valley geometry, riparian vegetation, and in the effect of confluences on the downstream channel morphometry.
 
Ganio, L. M., et al. (2005). "A geostatistical approach for describing spatial pattern in stream networks." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3(3): 138-144.
The shape and configuration of branched networks influence ecological patterns and processes. Recent investigations
of network influences in riverine ecology stress the need to quantify spatial structure not only in a
two-dimensional plane, but also in networks. An initial step in understanding data from stream networks is
discerning non-random patterns along the network. On the other hand, data collected in the network may be
spatially autocorrelated and thus not suitable for traditional statistical analyses. Here we provide a method
that uses commercially available software to construct an empirical variogram to describe spatial pattern in
the relative abundance of coastal cutthroat trout in headwater stream networks. We describe the mathematical
and practical considerations involved in calculating a variogram using a non-Euclidean distance metric to
incorporate the network pathway structure in the analysis of spatial variability, and use a non-parametric
technique to ascertain if the pattern in the empirical variogram is non-random.
 
Garbrecht, J. (1991). "Effects of Spatial Accumulation of Runoff on Watershed Response." Journal of Enivironmental Quality 20: 31-35.
Garbrecht, J., and L.W. Martz (1999). Digital elevation model issues in water resources modeling. 19th ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, CA.
Garbrecht, J. and L. W. Martz (1997). "The assignment of drainage direction over flat surfaces in raster digital elevation models." Journal of Hydrology 193: 204-213.
Gardner, T. W., et al. (1987). "Geomorphic and tectonic process rates: Effects of measured time interval." Geology 15: 259-261.
Garrigues, S., et al. (2006). "Quantifying spatial heterogeneity at the landscape scale using variogram models." Remote Sensing of Environment 103: 81-96.
The monitoring of earth surface dynamic processes at a global scale requires high temporal frequency remote sensing observations which are
provided up to now by moderate spatial resolution sensors. However, the spatial heterogeneity within the moderate spatial resolution pixel biases
non-linear estimation processes of land surface variables from remote sensing data. To limit its influence on the description of land surface
processes, corrections based on the quantification of the intra-pixel heterogeneity may be applied to non-linear estimation processes. A
complementary strategy is to define the proper pixel size to capture the spatial variability of the data and minimize the intra-pixel variability.
This work provides a methodology to characterize and quantify the spatial heterogeneity of landscape vegetation cover from the modeling of
the variogram of high spatial resolution NDVI data. NDVI variograms for 18 landscapes extracted from the VALERI database show that the land
use is the main factor of spatial variability as quantified by the variogram sill. Crop sites are more heterogeneous than natural vegetation and forest
sites at the landscape level. The integral range summarizes all structural parameters of the variogram into a single characteristic area. Its square
root quantifies the mean length scale (i.e. spatial scale) of the data, which varies between 216 and 1060 m over the 18 landscapes considered. The
integral range is also used as a yardstick to judge if the size of an image is large enough to measure properly the length scales of the data with the
variogram. We propose that it must be smaller than 5% of the image surface. The theoretical dispersion variance, computed from the variogram
model, quantifies the spatial heterogeneity within a moderate resolution pixel. It increases rapidly with pixel size until this size is larger than the
mean length scale of the data. Finally based on the analysis of 18 landscapes, the sufficient pixel size to capture the major part of the spatial
variability of the vegetation cover at the landscape scale is estimated to be less than 100 m. Since for all the heterogeneous landscapes the loss of
NDVI spatial variability was small at this spatial resolution, the bias generated by the intra-pixel spatial heterogeneity on non-linear estimation
processes will be reduced.
 
Gartner, J. E., et al. (2005). Compilation of data relating to the erosive respose of 606 recently-burned basins in the Western U.S., USGS Open File Report 2005-1218.
This report presents a compilation of data on the erosive response, debris-flow initiation processes, basin morphology, burn severity, event-triggering rainfall, rock type, and soils for 608 basins recently burned by 53 fires located throughout the Western United States.  The data presented here are a combination of those collected during our own field research and those reported in the literature.  In some cases, data from a Geographic Information System (GIS) and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were used to supplement the data from the primary source.  Due to gaps in the information available, not all parameters are characterized for all basins.
This database provides a resource for researchers and land managers interested in examining relations between the runoff response of recently burned basins and their morphology, burn severity, soils and rock type, and triggering rainfall.  The purpose of this compilation is to provide a single resource for future studies addressing problems associated with wildfire-related erosion.  For example, data in this compilation have been used to develop a model for debris flow probability from recently burned basins using logistic multiple regression analysis (Cannon and others, 2004).  This database provides a convenient starting point for other studies.  For additional information on estimated post-fire runoff peak discharges and debris-flow volumes, see Gartner and others (2004).
 
Gartner, J. E., et al. (2008). "Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S." Geomorphology 96: 339-354.
Recently burned basins frequently produce debris flows in response to moderate-to-severe rainfall. Post-fire hazard assessments of
debris flows are most useful when they predict the volume of material that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of
empirically-based models that predict potential volumes of wildfire-related debris flows in different regions and geologic settings.
The models were developed using data from 53 recently burned basins in Colorado, Utah and California. The volumes of debris
flows in these basins were determined by either measuring the volume of material eroded from the channels, or by estimating the
amount of material removed from debris retention basins. For each basin, independent variables thought to affect the volume of the
debris flow were determined. These variables include measures of basin morphology, basin areas burned at different severities, soil
material properties, rock type, and rainfall amounts and intensities for storms triggering debris flows. Using these data, multiple
regression analyses were used to create separate predictive models for volumes of debris flows generated by burned basins in six
separate regions or settings, including the western U.S., southern California, the Rocky Mountain region, and basins underlain by
sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks.
An evaluation of these models indicated that the bestmodel (theWestern U.S. model) explains 83% of the variability in the volumes
of the debris flows, and includes variables that describe the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30%, the basin area burned at
moderate and high severity, and total storm rainfall. This model was independently validated by comparing volumes of debris flows
reported in the literature, to volumes estimated using the model. Eighty-seven percent of the reported volumes were within two residual
standard errors of the volumes predicted using the model. This model is an improvement over previous models in that it includes a
measure of burn severity and an estimate ofmodeling errors. The application of thismodel, in conjunction withmodels for the probability
of debris flows, will enable more complete and rapid assessments of debris flow hazards following wildfire.
 
Gary, H. L. (1974). "Snow Accumulation and Snowmelt as Influenced by a Small Clearing in a Lodgepole Pine Forest." Water Resources Research 10(2): 348-353.
Gasparini, N. M., et al. (1999). "Downstream fining through selective particle sorting in an equilibrium drainage network." Geology 27(12): 1079-1082.
The phenomenon of downstream fining has been attributed to both particle abrasion and
selective particle sorting; the latter is generally considered to play the dominant role within resistant
lithologies. It has been recognized that tributaries can disrupt fining patterns; however,
few downstream-fining studies have considered the entire fluvial network structure. Here we
combine a theory for selective transport with a model of river-basin evolution in order to simulate
the dynamics of selective sorting throughout a drainage network. Previous numerical modeling
studies of single-thread or braided channels have treated downstream fining as a phenomenon
driven by differential deposition rates. We show, however, that in an eroding drainage
network, downstream fining emerges as a natural dynamic adjustment to variable water, sediment,
and energy inputs, even under conditions of uniform size distribution in sediment flux.
Thus, although selective deposition and abrasion clearly can and do play a role in some fluvial
systems, neither is necessary to produce downstream fining within a drainage network.
 
Gautam, M. R., K. Watanabe, and H. Saegusa. (2000). "Runoff analysis in humid forest catchment with artificial neural network." Journal of Hydrology 235(2000): 117-136.
Gedalof, Z., D. Peterson, and N. Mantua (2005). "Atmospheric, climatic, and ecological controls on extreme wildfire years in the northwestern United States." Ecological Applications 15: 545: 154-174.
Gee, G. W., and J.W. Bauder (1986). Particle size analysis. In Methods of soil analysis: Part 1. E. A. Klute. Madison, WI, American Society of Agronomy: pp. 383-411.
Geertsema, M. and J. J. Clague (2006). "1,000-year record of landslide dams at Halden Creek, northeastern British Columbia." Landslides: 11.
Large, rapid, low-gradient landslides are common in
clay-rich glacial sediments in northeastern British Columbia. Many
of the landslides create upstream impoundments that may persist
for years in small watersheds in the region. We have documented
such events in the Halden Creek watershed, 60 km southeast of
Fort Nelson. The events are recorded geologically in two ways.
First, trees are drowned in lakes dammed by the landslides and
subsequently buried by deltaic sediments, where they are protected
from decay. Bank erosion later exhumes the drowned trees.
Second, landslide deposits with entrained wood are exposed along
stream banks. We have reconstructed the recent history of
landslide damming at Halden Creek by performing radiocarbon
dating on exhumed trees and wood in and beneath landslide
deposits at 13 sites in the watershed. Drowned trees range in age
from 169±59 to 274±49 14C year BP. Wood in and below landslide
deposits yielded radiocarbon ages ranging from modern to 965±49
14C year BP
 
Geertsema, M. and J. J. Pojar (2006). "Influence of landslide on biophysical diversity - A perspective from British Columbia." Geomorphology.
Landslides have long been overlooked or underestimated as important natural disturbance agents. In particular the ecological
role of landslides in maintaining biological diversity has been largely ignored. Here we provide a western Canadian (British
Columbian) perspective on the influences of landslides on biophysical diversity, which is related in several ways to biological
diversity. We recognize several types of biophysical/ecological diversity: site diversity, soil diversity, and the derivative habitat or
ecosystem (including aquatic ecosystems) diversity. There are also a variety of landslide types, depending on materials and on the
rate and style of movement. We discuss the roles of different landslide types on various aspects of terrestrial diversity. Landslides
are simultaneously depositional and erosional processes that influence sites by redistributing materials and changing surface
expression —usually creating a complex microtopography that can include very dry ridges and hummocks, and sometimes
depressions with standing water. Landslide impacts to site also influence soil and soil development. Portions of landslides with
exposed parent material are set back to the initial stages of soil development and ecological succession. Landslides can also change
soil density, structure, porosity, surface texture, chemistry and microclimate. By changing site and soil, landslides also influence
habitat. Landslides influence habitat diversity by engendering a mosaic of seral stages (often both primary and secondary), and in
overwhelmingly forested landscapes often create nodes or hotspots of non-forested habitat and biota. In some areas, like the boreal
forest, there is an important interplay between landslides and fire, while on the coast of British Columbia debris and snow
avalanches can be the dominant disturbance agent. Low-gradient and deep-seated landslides are often opportunistically colonized
by beaver and other water and shrub-loving fauna. Sag ponds and impounded streams provide aquatic habitat —often with
standing dead trees. Landslide rubble and scarps provide denning/nesting habitat, escape terrain, and cliff habitat for vertebrates.
 
Geist, D. R. (2000). "Hyporheic discharge of river water into fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 57: 1647-1656.
Fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawned predominantly in areas of the Hanford Reach of
the Columbia River where hyporheic water discharged into the river channel. This upwelling water had a dissolved sol-ids
content (i.e., specific conductance) indicative of river water and was presumed to have entered highly permeable
riverbed substrate at locations upstream of the spawning areas. Hyporheic discharge zones composed of undiluted
ground water or areas with little or no upwelling were not used by spawning salmon. Rates of upwelling into spawning
areas averaged 1200 L·m –2 ·day –1 (95% CI = 784–1665 L·m –2 ·day –1 ) as compared with approximately 500 L·m –2 ·day –1
(95% CI = 303–1159 L·m –2 ·day –1 ) in nonspawning areas. Dissolved oxygen content of the hyporheic discharge near
salmon spawning areas was about 9 mg·L –1 (±0.4 mg·L –1 ) whereas in nonspawning areas, dissolved oxygen values
were 7 mg·L –1 (±0.9 mg·L –1 ) or lower. In both cases, dissolved oxygen of the river water was higher (11.3 ±
0.3 mg·L –1 ). Physical and chemical gradients between the hyporheic zone and the river may provide cues for adult
salmon to locate suitable spawning areas. This information will help fisheries managers to describe the suitability of
salmon spawning habitat in large rivers.
 
Geist, D. R. and D. D. Dauble (1998). "Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon: The Importance of Geomorphic Features in Large Rivers " Environmental Management 22(5): 655-669.
Geist, D. R., et al. (2002). "Physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone affect redd site selection by chum slamon and fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River." North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22: 1077-1085.
Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and fall chinook salmon O. tshawytscha spawned
at separate locations in a side channel near Ives Island, Washington, in the Columbia River
downstream of Bonneville Dam. We hypothesized that measurements of water depth, substrate
size, and water velocity would not sufficiently explain the separation in spawning areas and began
a 2-year investigation of physicochemical characteristics of the hyporheic zone. We found that
chum salmon spawned in upwelling water that was significantly warmer than the surrounding river
water. In contrast, fall chinook salmon constructed redds at downwelling sites, where there was
no difference in temperature between the river and its bed. An understanding of the specific factors
affecting chum salmon and fall chinook salmon redd site selection at Ives Island will be useful
to resource managers attempting to maximize available salmonid spawning habitat within the
constraints imposed by other water resource needs.
 
Geist, D. R., et al. (2000). "Suitability criteria analyzed at the spatial scale of redd clusters improved estimates of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning habitat use in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 57: 1636-1646.
We improved our predictions of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) habitat use by analyzing
spawning habitat at the spatial scale of redd clusters. Spatial point pattern analyses indicated that redd clusters in the
Hanford Reach, Columbia River, were consistent in their location from 1994 to 1995. Redd densities were 16.1 and 8.9
redds·ha –1 in 1994 and 1995, respectively, and individual redds within clusters were usually less than 30 m apart. Pat-tern
analysis also showed strong evidence that redds were uniformly distributed within the clusters where interredd dis-tances
ranged from 2 to 5 m. Redd clusters were found to occur predominantly where water velocity was between 1.4
and 2 m·s –1 , water depth was 2–4 m, and lateral slope of the riverbed was less than 4%. This habitat use represented a
narrower range of use than previously reported for adult fall chinook salmon. Logistic regression analysis determined
that water velocity and lateral slope were the most significant predictors of redd cluster location over a range of river
discharges. Overestimates of available spawning habitat lead to nonachievable goals for protecting and restoring critical
salmonid habitat. Better predictions of spawning habitat may be possible if cluster-specific characteristics are used.
 
Gell-Man, M. (1994). The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. New York, W. H. Freeman Co.
Gell-Mann, M. (1995). The Quark and the Jaguar. New York, W. H. Freeman and Company.
Geppert, R. R., et al. (1984). Cumulative Effects of Forest Practices on the Environment. Olympia, Washington, prepared by Ecosystems, Inc. for the Washington Forest Practices Board: 208.
Germanoski, D. and M. D. Harvey (1993). Asychronous Terrace Development in Degrading Braided Channels. Physical Geography, V.H. Winston & Son. 14: 16-38.
Gershenfeld, N. (1999). The Nature of Mathematical Modeling. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Gerson, R., et al. (1985). Stages in the creation of a large rift valley - geomorphic evolution along the southern Dead Sea Rift. Tectonic Geomorphology. J. T. Hack and M. Morisawa. London, Allen and Unwin.
Gertner, G., G. Wang, S. Fang, and A.B. Anderson (2002). "Effect and uncertainty of digital elevation model spatial resolutions on predicting the topographic for soil loss estimation." Journal of Soil and Water Conservation m/j: 164-174.
Gesch, D., et al. (2002). "The National Elevation Dataset." Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 68(1): 5-11.
The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a seamless raster product produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The NED provides elevation data coverage of the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the island territories in a seamless format with a consistent projection, resolution, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS elevation production program (Osborn and others, 2001), in which national coverage of quadrangle-based digital elevation models (DEM) has been completed.
 
Gharrett, J. T. and J. I. Hodges (1950). "Salmon Fisheries of the Coastal Rivers of Oregon South of the Columbia." Oregon Fish Commission Contribution #13: 3-30.
Gholz, H. L. (1982). "Environmental Limits on Aboveground Net Primary Production, Leaf Area, and Biomass in Vegetation Zones of the Pacific Northwest." Ecology 63(2): 469-481.
Giasson, E., et al. GIS-based spatial indices for identification of potential phosphorous export at watershed scale. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 57 (6), pp. 373-381;   15 ref.; 2002.
Spatial indices for identifying potential pollution resulting from manure spread on agricultural lands were developed for evaluating lands in support of decision- and policy-making. An existing nutrient-delivery ratio was modified by calculating actual distance that water would have to travel to reach a stream and was further tailored to better represent runoff source areas in New York state by incorporating soil drainage class. The Animal Manure Potential Pollution Index (AMPPI) was derived from this modified delivery ratio and animal population census data. The AMPPI and other derived indices use geographical information and nutrient application data to identify and rank geographical areas with respect to potential nutrient export to streams. These indices were applied in the Cannonsville Reservoir Basin in Delaware County, New York, USA. Results demonstrate the potential for using the AMPPI and its derivative indices for selecting priority areas for implementing conservation practices or enrolling lands in programmes such as the Conservation Reserve Program. For example, conservation practices would result in large reductions of potential pollution per unit of area when implemented in identified areas of croplands with high AMPPI. Additionally, an efficient way to reduce total nutrient concentration in those streams that have high nutrient loading would be to enroll in conservation programmes those farms located in subbasins with high nutrient export per unit area, which correspond to areas with high animal density. Farms located in subbasins that have high ratios of nutrient loss per animal unit would benefit from improved manure-management practices, such as improved manure allocation.
 
Gibbons, A. B. and J. D. Mageath (1984). "Probability of moraine survival in a succession of glacial advances " Geology 12: 327-330.
Gifford Pinchot National Forest (?). Gifford Pinchot National Forest Area Cumulative Effects Analysis Final Report to the Forest Management Team, Gifford Pinchot National Forest.
Gilbert, G. K. (1917). Hydraulic-mining debris in the Sierra Nevada, United States Geological Survey: 154.
Gillian, S. E. (1989). Storage Dynamics of Fine Woody Debris for Two Low-order Coastal Streams in Southeast Alaska. ? ?, ?: 85.
Gillilan, S. E. (1989). Storage dynamics of fine woody debris for two low-order coastal streams in southeast Alaska. Forest Science. Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University.
Gilpin, M. E. (1987). Minimum viable populations: a restoration ecology perspective. Restoration Ecology. W. R. Jordan. Cambridge, MA, Cambridge University Press: 301-305.
Gippel, C. (1985). "Changes in stream channel morphology at tributary junctions, Lower Hunter Valley, New South Wales." Australian Geographical Studies 23: 291-307.
Many empirically derived models of downstream changes in channel form are based on the concept of hydraulic geometry, whereby changes in channel morphological variablies are related by a continuous power function to increasing discharge or its surrogate. However, changes in discharge throughout a drainage basin are normally concentrated at the junctions of stream channels. At junctions, the relationship between discharge and channel morphology is discontinuous. Some Lower Hunter Valley stream channels were surveyed upstream and downstream of tributary junctions. While significant regional downstream relationships were established, consistent trends at tributary junctions were not apparent from the data. It is possible that considerable scatter evident in ratios of change on either side of eachh junction was due to local within-site variability. In addition, the relative timing of discharge inputs and the nature of introduced sediment loads could be important in determining the magnitude and direction of channel change at tributary junctions. Interrelated changes in cross-section, profile and planform variables may be expected below junctions. The resultant channel morphology, in terms of these variables, might not be wholly determinate.
 
Glade, T. (2003). "Landslide occurrence as a response to land use change: a review of evidence from New Zealand." Catena 51: 297-314.
Glade, T. (2005). "Linking debris-flow hazard assessments with geomorphology." Geomorphology 66: 189-213.
Debris-flow hazard assessment schemes are commonly based on empirical, physical, or numerical methods and techniques.
Inherent in all methods is generally the assumption of unlimited sediment supply. This study compares model inputs of
sediment requirements for debris flows with estimated sediment reproduction from both solifluction and rockwall retreat. The
analysis is carried out in Bý´ldudalur, a community in the Westfjords of Iceland. Geomorphic techniques are applied to determine
the set of natural processes acting in this landscape to estimate spatial distribution of relevant processes, to approximate level of
processes activity, and to provide information for scenario modeling. Debris-flow volumes are determined by coupling rainfall
magnitudes and catchment sizes with average sediment contents. Rockwall retreat and solifluction rates are based on literature
reviews.
For a rainstorm with a 10-year return period, debris-flow volumes are calculated for 12 different creeks. Rates are assumed
for solifluction with a velocity of 0.25 m/yr at an average depth of 0.5 m and for rockwall retreat with 2 mm/yr. Comparing
sediment requirements with estimated sediment reproduction leads to a factor of deficit ranging between 6.2 and 8.5. Thus, the
sediment storage is not refilled as fast as the next potential triggering rainfall occurs. Consequently, if a debris flow has occurred
in the past, all sediment is removed, and the following rainstorm event is djustT causing a flood, which is by far less destructive
than a debris-flow event. The challenge of future debris-flow hazard-assessment schemes is to include geomorphic analysis to
be able to obtain more sustainable results.
 
 
Glass, C. E. and R. Klimmek (2001). "Routing Debris Flows." Environmental & Engineering Geoscience 7(2): 177-191.
Goetz, S. J. (2006). "Remote sensing of riparian buffers: past progress and future prospects." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42(1): 133-143.
Riparian buffer zone management is an area of increasing
relevance as human modification of the landscape continues unabated.
Land and water resource managers are continually challenged to maintain
stream ecosystem integrity and water quality in the context of
rapidly changing land use, which often offsets management gains.
Approaches are needed not only to map vegetation cover in riparian
zones, but also to monitor the changes taking place, target restoration
activities, and assess the success of previous management actions. To
date, these objectives have been difficult to meet using traditional
techniques based on aerial photos and field visits, particularly over
large areas. Recent advances in remote sensing have the potential to
substantially aid buffer zone management. Very high resolution
imagery is now available that allows detailed mapping and monitoring
of buffer zone vegetation and provides a basis for consistent assessments
using moderately high resolution remote sensing (e.g., Landsat).
Laser-based remote sensing is another advance that permits even
more detailed information on buffer zone properties, such as refined
topographic derivatives and multidimensional vegetation structure.
These sources of image data and map information are reviewed in this
paper, examples of their application to riparian buffer mapping and
stream health assessment are provided, and future prospects for
improved buffer monitoring are discussed.
 
Gol'din, B. M. and Lyubashevskiy (1966). "Computation of the velocity of mudflows for Crimean Rivers." Soviet Hydrology 2: 179-181.
Gol'din, B. M. and L. S. Lyubashevskiy (1966). "Computation of the Velocity of Mudflows for Crimean Rivers." Transactions of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Research Institute 60: 73-75.
Gomez, B. (1983). "Temporal variations in bedload transport rates: the effect of progressive bed armouring." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 8: 41-54.
Gomez, B., and M. Church (1989). "An assessment of bed load sediment transport formulae for gravel bed rivers." Water Resources Research 25(6): 1161-1186.
Gomez, B. (1991). "Bedload transport." Earth-Sc. Rev. 31: 89-132.
The complete understanding of bedload transport requires the development of reliable apparatus and techniques for predicting, measuring, and sampling bedload in rivers. This review presents an overview of the development of knowledge and research into bedload transport during the past century. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of methods of predicting and estimating bedload discharge. Problems involved in using field data to calibrate bedload transport fomulae and bedload samplers, and factors that affect the design of sampling programmes are specifically addressed. Reluctance to acknowledge the inherently unstable nature of bedload transport has been a principal factor in limiting progress. Some causes of temporal and spatial instability in bedload transport are isolated, and their effect upon the transport process elucidated.
 
Gomez, B. (1995). Bedload transport and changing grain size distributions. Changing River Channels. A. Gurnell and G. Petts, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: 177-199.
Gomez, B., et al. (2003). "Gully erosion and sediment production: Te Weraroa Stream, New Zealand." Water Resources Research 39(7): 1187.
We derive a sediment budget for Te Weraroa Stream, New Zealand, the principal
drainage in a small (29 km2) steepland catchment where gully erosion, triggered by
conversion to pasture early in the twentieth century, was ameliorated by reforestation that
commenced in 1962. Estimates of sediment production were made using the change in
gully area observed in sequential aerial photographs. Channel storage was assessed from
stream cross-section surveys. At its peak, gully erosion affected  6% of the total catchment
area. The amount of sediment contributed from gullies declined by 62% as the forest
became established, but of the 28.7 Mt of sediment generated by gully erosion between
1950 and 1988, 48% was stored in the channel along the lower 8 km of TeWeraroa Stream.
Even if the amount of sediment generated by gully erosion continues to decline, it likely
will be many decades before the gravel is released from storage.
 
Gomez, B. and M. Church (1989). "An assessment of bed load sediment transport formulae for gravel bed rivers." WRR 25(6): 1161-1186.
The performance is tested of 12 bed load sediment transport formulae developed for use in gravel bed channels. The formulae are applied in the manner intended by the original authors. To this end, the test data are restricted to ones obtained in approximately steady flow when the material in motion was similar to that present on the bed; that is, transport was not size selective. This represents the nearest approach to "equilibrium sediment transport" that can be realized with available data. Four sets of river data and three sets of flume data were chosen for the test, covering a range of eight orders of magnitude in unit bed load transport rate. The test data were not used in the development of the formulae. The analysis separates mean bias and local bias. No formula performs consistently well. Limitations of the test data, the constraints imposed by an operationally realistic test, and reasons based upon the physics of the transport phenomenon all may be adduced for this. To estimate the magnitude of transport with limited hydraulic information, stream power equations should be used because they provide the most straightforward scale correlation of the phenomenon. In particular, the approach of Bagnold deserves further study. When local hydraulic information is available, a formula should be selected that is sensitive to bed state or grain size distribution and, in this context, the formulae of Einstein, Parker, and Ackers-White-Day bear continued examination.
 
Gomez, B., et al. (1998). "Floodplain construction by recent, rapid vertical accretion: Waipaoa River, New Zealand." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23: 405-413.
Gomez, B., et al. (1989). "Temporal variations in bedload transport rates associated with the migration of bedforms." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 14: 135-156.
Gomi, T., R.D. Moore, M.A. Hassan (2005). "Suspended sediment dynamics in small forest streams of the Pacific Northwest." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41(4): 877-898.
Gomi, T. and R. C. Sidle (2003). "Bed load transport in managed steep-gradient headwater streams of southeastern Alaska." Water Resources Research 39(12): DOI: 1029/2003WR002440, 002003.
Bed load transport was investigated in four headwater streams in southeastern Alaska subjected to different management and disturbance regimes. Bed load yield was positively correlated to peak discharge during the fall 1999 monitoring period. Fine bed load materials (1–11 mm) that were supplied from hillslope sources were equally mobilized during most storm events. Medium-sized bed materials (11–200 m) were only partially mobilized even during large storms, whereas large particles (>200 mm) were immobile and often formed interlocking channel structures. The transport distances of medium-size materials depended on amount of channel obstructions (e.g., woody debris) and sediment supply conditions; both of these factors were influenced by the occurrence of mass movement, timber harvesting, and the related recovery processes. The highest total bed load yield was observed in a channel affected by a debris flow in 1993. Total sediment yields are similar among channels with old-growth, clear cut (logged 4 years before monitoring), and young alder (affected by landslides and debris flows in 1961) riparian stands. By comparing the old-growth and young alder channels, it appears that bed load yield recovers from debris flow disturbances in about 40 years; however, recovery of channel conditions (e.g., reach types and woody debris) may take much longer. Effects of timber harvesting on bed load transport are controlled by sediment linkages between hillslopes and channels related to the occurrence of mass movement.
 
Gomi, T., et al. (2001). "The characteristics of woody debris and sediment distribution in headwater streams, southeastern Alaska." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31: 1386-1399.
Large woody debris (LWD), fine woody debris (FWD), fine organic debris (FOD), and sediment deposition
were measured in 15 steep headwater streams with five management and disturbance regimes. Clear-cut channels
logged in 1995 contained large accumulations of logging residue that initially provided sites for sediment storage. Half
of the LWD in clear-cut channels was recruited during and immediately after logging. Woody debris from logging activities
remains in young growth conifer channels 37 years after logging. Numbers of LWD in clear-cut and young conifer
channels were significantly higher than in old-growth channels, although numbers of FWD pieces were not
significantly different because of higher recruitment from old-growth stands. Channels that experienced recent (1979
and (or) 1993) and earlier (1961 and (or) 1979) scour and runout of landslides and debris flows contained less LWD
and FWD, although large volumes of LWD and FWD were found in deposition zones. The volumes of sediment stored
in young alder and recent landslide channels were higher than in the other channels. Because of the recruitment of
LWD and FWD from young alder stands, the ratio of sediment stored behind woody debris to total sediment volume
was higher in young alder channels compared with recent landslide channels. Numbers of LWD and FWD pieces in all
streams were significantly correlated with the volumes of sediment stored behind woody debris. Timber harvesting and
soil mass movement influence the recruitment, distribution, and accumulation of woody debris in headwater streams;
this modifies sediment storage and transport in headwater channels.
 
Gomi, T., et al. (2002). "Understanding Processes and Downsteam Linkages of Headwater Systems." BioScience 52(10): 905-916.
Gomi, T., et al. (2002). "Understanding processes and downstream linkages of headwater systems." BioScience 52(10): 905-916.
Gomi, T., et al. (2004). "Hydrogeomorphic linkages of sediment transport in headwater streams, Maybeso Experimental Forest, southeast Alaska." Hydrological Processes 18: 667-683.
Hydrogemorphic linkages related to sediment transport in headwater streams following basin wide clear-cut logging
on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska, were investigated. Landslides and debris flows transported sediment
and woody debris in headwater tributaries in 1961, 1979, and 1993. Widespread landsliding in 1961 and 1993
was triggered by rainstorms with recurrence intervals (24 h precipitation) of 7Ð0 years and 4Ð2 years respectively.
Occurrence, distribution, and downstream effects of these mass movements were controlled by landform characteristics
such as channel gradient and valley configuration. Landslides and channelized debris flows created exposed bedrock
reaches, log jams, fans, and abandoned channels. The terminus of the deposits did not enter main channels because
debris flows spread and thinned on the unconfined bottom of the U-shaped glaciated valley. Chronic sediment input to
channels included surface erosion of exposed till (rain splash, sheet erosion, and freeze–thaw action) and bank failures.
Bedload sediment transport in a channel impacted by 1993 landslides and debris flows was two to ten times greater and
relatively finer compared with bedload transport in a young alder riparian channel that had last experienced a landslide
and debris flow in 1961. Sediment transport and storage were influenced by regeneration of riparian vegetation,
storage behind recruited woody debris, development of a streambed armour layer, and the decoupling of hillslopes
and channels. Both spatial and temporal variations of sediment movement and riparian condition are important factors
in understanding material transport within headwaters and through channel networks.
 
Gonor, J. J., et al. (1988). What we know about large trees in estuaries, in the sea, and on coastal beaches. From the Forest to the Sea: A Story of Fallen Trees. C. Maser, R. F. Tarrant, j. M. Trappe and J. M. Franklin. Portland, OR, U.S.D.A., Forest Service. PNW-GTR-229: 83-112.
Goodrich, D. C., et al. (1997). "Linearity of basin response as a function of scale in a semiarid watershed." Water Resources Research 33(12): 2951-2965.
Goodwin, P. (2004). "Analytical solutions for estimating effective discharge." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering-ASCE 130(8): 729-738.
Gooseff, M. N., et al. (2008). On the relationships among temporal patterns of evapo-transpiration, stream flow and riparian water levels in headwater catchments during baseflow. Integrating Groundwater Science and Human Well Being. Yoyama, Japan: 842-851.
Diel fluctuations in stream flow during baseflow discharge and coincident fluctuations in riparian
water levels have been observed in many streams and are typically attributed to water losses from evapotranspiration
(ET). Riparian water level fluctuation may be due to 1) changes in stream stage, 2) changes in
supply of subsurface hillslope water to the riparian zone, and/or 3) ET from riparian vegetation. We analyze data
collected over the summer of 2004 from a previously-established network of wells located across a corridor of a
headwater stream (~100 ha contributing area) in the central Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. Our findings
indicate that groundwater-stream interactions link drawdown of riparian aquifers with streams in very complex
spatial and temporal patterns even at the local scale (m to 10s of m). This is coincident with the effects of basinwide
limitation of hillslope water yield to riparian zones (and streams) that cause local changes in stream stage.
 
Gordon, S. J. and R. D. Klousner, Jr. (1986). "Using Landslide Hazard Information in Planning." APA Journal 52(4): 431-442.
Gorsline, D. S. (1980). Sediment delivery to California margin basins over the past 1000 years. International Geological Congress, Abstracts--Congres Geologique Internationale, Resumes. location varies, International Geological Congress. 26: 477.
Gottesfeld, A. S., et al. (2004). "Sediment dispersion in salmon spawning streams: the influence of floods and salmon redd construction." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 40(4): 1071-1086.
Magnetically tagged particles were used to investigate
the effects of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and floods on
the dispersion of coarse bed material in the Stuart-Takla region,
British Columbia, Canada. The dominant annual sediment transporting
event in the channels is the snowmelt flood events, with
lesser activity usually accomplished during summer floods. Annually
in August, the channel bed material is reworked by the Early
Stuart sockeye salmon spawning, as the fish excavate the
streambed to deposit and bury their eggs. These nesting cavities
are called redds. Results from 67 tracer recovery experiments over
five years were highly variable, subject to the magnitude of floods
and the returning population of salmon. Overall, the depositional
pattern from nival flood events usually demonstrated a high degree
of clast mobilization, long travel distances (up to 150 m), and mean
depths of burial up to 18 cm. Summer flood events showed somewhat
lower rates of mobilization, distances of travel, and depths of
burial. Although the fish did not move the tracers very far, their
effect on the bed was generally quite pervasive – up to 100 percent
of the clasts were mobilized, and the depth of burial was considerable
(mean burial depths up to 14 cm). The amount of vertical mixing
of sediment by salmon was often on the same order of
magnitude as flood events. The significant vertical mixing of sediments
by the fish has important implications for the mobility of
sediment in the stream. Since any armoring layer formed during
high flows throughout the year is subject to the bioturbation of
salmon, this suggests that the transport threshold in the creeks
remains relatively low. Salmon likely play an integral role in the
sediment transport dynamics and annual sediment budget of the
lower reaches of these creeks.
 
 
Govindaraju, R. S., and A. Ramachandra, Ed. (2000). Artificial neural networks in hydrology. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publlishers.
Graf, W. L. (1977). "The rate law in fluvial geomorphology." American Journal of Science 277: 178-191.
Graf, W. L. (1979). Catastrophe Theory as a Model for Change in Fluvial Systems. Adjustments of the Fluvial System. Kendall and Hunt: 13-32.
Graham, A. L. and J. O. Annexstad (1989). "Antarctic meteorites." Antarctic Science 1(1): 3-14.
Granger, D. E., et al. (1996). "Spatially Averaged Long-term Erosion Rates Measured From in Situ-produced Cosmogenic Nuclides in Alluvial Sediment." The Journal of Geology 104: 249-257.
Grant, E. H. C., et al. (2007). "Living in the branches: population dynamics and ecological processes in dendritic networks." Ecology Letters 10: 165-175.
Spatial structure regulates and modifies processes at several levels of ecological
organization (e.g. individual/genetic, population and community) and is thus a key
component of complex systems, where knowledge at a small scale can be insufficient for
understanding system behaviour at a larger scale. Recent syntheses outline potential
applications of network theory to ecological systems, but do not address the implications
of physical structure for network dynamics. There is a specific need to examine how
dendritic habitat structure, such as that found in stream, hedgerow and cave networks,
influences ecological processes. Although dendritic networks are one type of ecological
network, they are distinguished by two fundamental characteristics: (1) both the branches
and the nodes serve as habitat, and (2) the specific spatial arrangement and hierarchical
organization of these elements interacts with a species  movement behaviour to alter
patterns of population distribution and abundance, and community interactions. Here,
we summarize existing theory relating to ecological dynamics in dendritic networks,
review empirical studies examining the population- and community-level consequences
of these networks, and suggest future research integrating spatial pattern and processes
in dendritic systems.
 
 
Grant, G. (1986). The Rapid Technique: A New Method for Evaluating Downstream Effects of Forest Practices on Stream Channels (draft). Corvallis, OR, Forestry Sciences Laboratory: 51.
Grant, G. (1997). A geomorphic basis for interpreting the hydrologic behavior of large river basins. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press Inc.
Grant, G. E. (1977). A geomorphic basis for interpreting the hydrologic behavior of large river basins. River Quality: Dynamics & Restoration. A. Laenen and D. A. Dunnette. Boca-Raton, Florida, CRC Press: 105-116.
Grant, G. E. (1986). Assessing Effects of Peak Flow Increases on Stream Channels: A Rational Approach. California Watershed Management Conference, West Sacramento, California.
Grant, G. E. (1986). Downstream Effects of Timber Harvest Activities on the Channel and Valley Floor Morphology of Western Cascade Streams. Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University.
Grant, G. E. (1989). Cumulative effects of forest management on sediment production, transport, and storage; an overview. Agronomy Abstracts, vol.81. E. C. A. Runge: 303.
Grant, G. E. (1997). "Critical flow constrains flow hydraulics in mobile-bed streams: A new hypothesis." Water Resources Research 33(2): 349-358.
Grant, G. E. (?). The changing environment of debris flow management in the Pacific Northwest, U.S. and Japan. Corvallis, Oregon, US Forest Service: 11.
Grant, G. E. (?). Morphology of high gradient streams at different spatial scales, Western Cascades, Oregon. Workshop on "Channel Geomorphological Change and Sediment Control at Devastated River".
Grant, G. E., et al. (1992). XSPRO: A channel cross-section analyzer, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management
 
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Forest Service: 3-53.
Grant, G. E., et al. (2008). Effects of forest practices on peak flows and consequent channel response: A state-of-science report for western Oregon and Washington. Portland, OR, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station: 76.
This is a state-of-the-science synthesis of the effects of forest harvest activities on
peak flows and channel morphology in the Pacific Northwest, with a specific focus
on western Oregon and Washington. We develop a database of relevant studies
reporting peak flow data across rain-, transient-, and snow-dominated hydrologic
zones, and provide a quantitative comparison of changes in peak flow across both a
range of flows and forest practices. Increases in peak flows generally diminish with
decreasing intensity of percentage of watershed harvested and lengthening recurrence
intervals of flow. Watersheds located in the rain-dominated zone appear to be
less sensitive to peak flow changes than those in the transient snow zone; insufficient
data limit interpretations for the snow zone. Where present, peak flow effects on
channel morphology should be confined to stream reaches where channel gradients
are less than approximately 0.02 and streambeds are composed of gravel and finer
material. We provide guidance as to how managers might evaluate the potential risk
of peak flow increases based on factors such as presence of roads, watershed drainage
efficiency, and specific management treatments employed. The magnitude of
effects of forest harvest on peak flows in the Pacific Northwest, as represented by
the data reported here, are relatively minor in comparison to other anthropogenic
changes to streams and watersheds.
 
 
Grant, G. E. and T. Mizuyama (1991). Origin of step-pool sequences in high gradient streams: a flume experiment. Japan-U.S. Workshop on Snow Avalanche, Landslide, Debris Flow Prediction and Control.
Grant, G. E., et al. (1990). "Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon." GSA Bull 102: 340-352.
A general hierarchical framework for viewing steped-bed morphology in high-gradient channels is presented. We emphasize channel units - bed features that are one or more channel widths in length - as a particularly important scale of variation. Field strdies in two streams in the Cascade Range in Oregon indicated that pool, riffle, rapid, cascade, and step channel units had distinct bed slope ranges, with average slopes of 0.005, 0.011, 0.029, 0.055, and 0.173, rspectively. Steeper units (rapids and cascades) are composed of step-pool sequences created by particles representing the 90th or larger percentile size fraction of bed material. Step spacing is inversely proportional to bed slope.
  The distribution of channel units along a stream is influenced by bedrock and processes that introduce coarse sediment. Cascade and pool units dominate where landslide and debris-flow deposits constrict channel width and deliver large immobile boulders to the channel, whereas riffle and rapid units dominate in broad valley flats where deposition of finer sediment occurs. Markov chain analysis indicates that channel units occur in nonrandom two-unit sequences with the slope of the upstream unit inversely proportional to the slope of the next downstream unit. Pool-to-pool spacings average two to four channel widths, but variability in spacing is high, owing to uneven distribution of bedrock outcrops and boulder deposits within the channel.
  Hydraulic reconstruction indicates that channel units form during high-magnitude, low-frequency events with recurrence intervals of about 50 yr. Comparison of channel-unit morphology to high-gradient flume experiments with heterogenous bedload mixtures indicated that unit morphogenesis is linked to factors that cause congestion of large particles during bedload transport events; these include local constrictions in channel width, immobile bed material, and abrupt fluctions in velocity due to hydraulic jumps that promote deposition. Channel units appear to be a two-dimensional bar form found in streams where gradients exceed 2%, bedload is widely sorted, and width-to-depth ratios and sediment supply are low - condiditons found in many mountain environments.
 
Grant, G. E., et al. (1990). "Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon." Geological Society of America 102: 340-352.
A general hierarchical framework for viewing steped-bed morphology in high-gradient channels is presented. We emphasize channel units - bed features that are one or more channel widths in length - as a particularly important scale of variation. Field strdies in two streams in the Cascade Range in Oregon indicated that pool, riffle, rapid, cascade, and step channel units had distinct bed slope ranges, with average slopes of 0.005, 0.011, 0.029, 0.055, and 0.173, rspectively. Steeper units (rapids and cascades) are composed of step-pool sequences created by particles representing the 90th or larger percentile size fraction of bed material. Step spacing is inversely proportional to bed slope.
  The distribution of channel units along a stream is influenced by bedrock and processes that introduce coarse sediment. Cascade and pool units dominate where landslide and debris-flow deposits constrict channel width and deliver large immobile boulders to the channel, whereas riffle and rapid units dominate in broad valley flats where deposition of finer sediment occurs. Markov chain analysis indicates that channel units occur in nonrandom two-unit sequences with the slope of the upstream unit inversely proportional to the slope of the next downstream unit. Pool-to-pool spacings average two to four channel widths, but variability in spacing is high, owing to uneven distribution of bedrock outcrops and boulder deposits within the channel.
  Hydraulic reconstruction indicates that channel units form during high-magnitude, low-frequency events with recurrence intervals of about 50 yr. Comparison of channel-unit morphology to high-gradient flume experiments with heterogenous bedload mixtures indicated that unit morphogenesis is linked to factors that cause congestion of large particles during bedload transport events; these include local constrictions in channel width, immobile bed material, and abrupt fluctions in velocity due to hydraulic jumps that promote deposition. Channel units appear to be a two-dimensional bar form found in streams where gradients exceed 2%, bedload is widely sorted, and width-to-depth ratios and sediment supply are low - condiditons found in many mountain environments.
 
Grant, G. E. and A. L. Wolff (1991). Long-term patterns of sediment transport after timber harvest, western Cascade Mountains, Oregon, USA. Sediment and Stream Water Quality in a Changing Environment. N. E. Peters and D. E. Walling, International Association of Hydrological Sciences. 203: 31-40.
Suspended and bedload sediments were sampled from 1958-1988 on three small watersheds in the western Cascade Range in Oregon. Annual sediment yields varied greatly among watersheds, and the pattern of long-term sediment production reflects their timber harvest and mass movement histories. Total yields from 1958-1988 were 5100 t km-2 in the clearcut watersheds (WS1), 21000 t km-2 in the patchcut watershed with roads (WS3), and 800 t km-2 in the forested control (WS 2). More than 85% of the total sediment yield in WS 3 occurred during a storm in 1964 when a series of debris flows scoured the channel to bedrock. Excluding that event, post-logging annual export from WS 1 has been more than twice that from WS 3. The importance of episodic mass erosion events in this landscape limits the effectiveness of small watershed studies for analyzing long-term sediment yields.
 
Grant, G. G. and F. J. Swanson (1995). Morphology and processes of valley floors in mountain streams, Western Cascades, Oregon. Natural and Anthropogenic Influences in Fluvial Geomorphology, Geophysical Monograph 89. J. E. Costa, a. J. Miller, K. W. Potter and P. R. Wilcock. Washington, D. C., American Geophysical Union: 83-101.
Grant, G. T., and A.L. Wolff (1991). Long-term patterns of sediment transport after timber harvest, Western Cascade Mountains, Oregon. Sediment and Stream Water Quality in a Changing Environment: Trends and Explanation. Proceedings of the Vienna Symposium. IAHS Publication no. 203.
Grant, J. W. A., et al. (1998). "Implications of territory size for the measurement and prediction of salmonid abundance in streams." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 55(Suppl. 1): 181-190.
Information about territory size is useful for both the measurement and prediction of salmonid abundance.
Percent habitat saturation (PHS), the percentage of the stream area occupied by the territories of salmonid fishes, is a
better measure of abundance than population density because the former integrates the effects of (a) several age-classes
or species in a stream, and (b) variation in growth rate or sampling date. “Effective density” or “effective PHS,”
calculated by weighting crude density (no.·m-2) or PHS by the number of organisms in the sampling unit, more
accurately reflects density from the organism’s point of view than does crude density or PHS. Effective density and
PHS of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Catamaran Brook, New Brunswick, increased by 0.4 fish per m2 and 4%,
respectively, for each order of magnitude decrease in the area of the sampling unit. Literature data suggested that
territory size is inversely related to food abundance and can be used to predict changes in salmonid abundance that
accompany changes in food abundance. The allometry of territory size was a better predictor of the decline in density
of a cohort of Atlantic salmon in Catamaran Brook than the allometry of metabolic requirements.
 
Graumlich, L. J. (1987). "Precipitation Variation in the Pacific Northwest (1675-1975) as Reconstructed from Tree Rings." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77(1): 19-29.
Graumlich, L. J. and L. B. Brubaker (1986). "Reconstruction of Annual Temperature (1590-1979) for Longmire, Washington, Derived from Tree Rings." Quaternary Research 25: 223-234.
Graves-Morfin, S. R. (2000). Moscow, University of Idaho.
With the growing public use of the national forests, forest engineers, managers, and planners have had the challenge of upgrading and maintaining extensive road networks, while minimizing the ecological impacts of those road systems on the environment. Properly designing road drainage for local soils, topography, and slope conditions can reduce erosion from road surfaces, subsequently reducing sedimentation risk elsewhere. Knowledge about the amount of soil eroded and delivered from the road system is valuable when making decisions about road drainage design or redesign. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, a process-based erosion model, was validated and then used to create an output database of erosion amounts for 79,200 different road configurations, locations, and soil types. This output then was used to derive equations for erosion and runoff from low volume roads. Two approaches were used to derive these equations. The first was a Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) approach where soil erodibility (K) factors and length-slope (LS) factors were derived using the WEPP database and the other RUSLE factors. This method resulted in equations that estimated road erosion within + or -50% of the database values. The second approach using the WEPP database was based on multivariate regressions and the development of equations for road soil loss, road runoff, and sediment yield. Single interaction, double interaction, and quadratic interaction multivariate analyses were done using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) and the WEPP database to develop the regression equations. This approach resulted in road soil loss and runoff values within + or -20% of the original database values. This approach was also attempted for sediment delivery across a buffer, however, it was less successful due to complications from such factors as antecedent moisture, vegetative cover, and sediment loading in runoff.
 
Gray, D. H. and W. F. Megahan (1981). Forest vegetation removal and slope stability in the Idaho Batholith. Ogden, Utah, USDA Forest Service: 23.
Gray, L. G. (1934). "Long-period fluctuations of some meteorological elements in relation to California forest-fire problems." Monthly Weather Review: 231-235.
Green, D. G. (1994). "Connectivity and complexity in landscapes and ecosystems." Pacific Conservation Biology: 1-10.
Green TR, S. B., CR Dietrich, and AJ Jakeman (1999). "Relating stream-bank erosion to in-stream transport of suspended sediment." Hydrologic Processes 13: 777-787.
Gregory, K. J. (1992). Vegetation and River Channel Process Interactions. River Conservation and Management. P. J. Boon, P. Calow and G. E. Petts, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 16: 255-269.
Gregory, K. J., et al. (1985). "The permance of debris dams related to river channel processes." Hydrological Sciences 30(3, 9): 371-381.
Gregory, K. J., et al. (1985). "The permanence of debris dams related to river channel processes." Hydrological Sciences 30(9): 371-381.
Gregory, S. and R. Wildman (1992). Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Project. Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University: 1-29.
Gregory, S. V., F. J. Swanson, W.A. McKee, and K.W. Cummins (1991). "An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones." BioScience 41(8): 540-551.
Gregory, S. V., et al., Eds. (2003). The Ecology and Management of Wood in World Rivers. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society.
Gregory, S. V., et al. (2003). Modeling the dynamics of wood in streams and rivers. The Ecology and Management of Wood in World Rivers, American Fisheries Symposium 37. S. V. Gregory, K. L. Boyer and A. M. Gurnell. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society: 315-335.
Gregory, S. V., et al. (1991). "An Ecosystem Perspective of Riparian Zones." BioScience 41(8): 540-551.
Gregory, S. V. a. n. a. (2000). Bibliography: World literature on wood in streams, rivers, estuaries and riparian areas version 1.0. International Conference on Wood in World Rivers, Corvallis, Oregon.
Gresswell, R. E. (1999). "Fire and aquatic ecosystems in forested biomes of North America." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128: 193-221.
Gresswell, R. E. (1999). Fire and Aquatic Ecosystems in Forested Biomes of North America (DRAFT). Corvallis, Oregon, Oregon State University: 50.
Gresswell, R. E., et al. (2006). A spatially explicit approach for evaluating relationships among coastal cutthroat trout, habitat, and disturbance in small Oregon streams. Landscape Influences on Stream Habitats and biological Assemblages. R. M. Hughes, L. Wang and P. W. Seelbach. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society. Symposium 48: 457-471.
Small stream systems are complex networks that form a physicochemical template
governing the persistence of aquatic species such as coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii
clarkii. To gain new insight into these interactions, we initiated an integrated program of landscape-
scale sampling that is focused on fine- and broad-scale relationships among upslope
landscape characteristics, physical stream habitat, and the spatial patterns of cutthroat trout
abundance. Our sample of 40 catchments (500–1,000 ha) represented approximately 15% of
the 269 barrier-isolated catchments in western Oregon that support populations of cutthroat
trout. Because data were collected in a spatially contiguous manner throughout each catchment,
it was possible to collect biological and geographic information necessary to assess the
spatial structure of cutthroat trout abundance. Results underscore the influence of the physical
habitat template at a variety of spatial scales. For example, cutthroat trout move throughout
the accessible portions of small streams. Some cutthroat trout congregate in areas of suitable
habitat and form local populations that may exhibit unique genetic attributes. At times, some
cutthroat trout move into larger downstream portions of the network where they may contribute
to the genetic character of anadromous or local potamodromous assemblages. Results
underscore the advantages of viewing habitats that are critical to the fitness and persistence of
cutthroat trout populations as matrices of physical sites that are linked by movement. It is
apparent that human activities that impede movement among suitable habitat patches can
have unanticipated consequences for metapopulations of cutthroat trout and may ultimately
affect their persistence.
 
Gresswell, R. E. and S. R. Hendricks (2007). "Population-scale movement of coastal cutthroat trout in a naturally isolated stream network." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136: 238-253.
To identify population-scale patterns of movement, coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus
clarkii clarkii tagged and marked (35 radio-tagged, 749 passive integrated transponder [PIT]-tagged, and
3,025 fin-clipped) were monitored from June 1999 to August 2000. The study watershed, located in western
Oregon, was above a natural barrier to upstream movement. Emigration out of the watershed was estimated
with a rotating fish trap. Approximately 70% of recaptured coastal cutthroat trout with PIT tags and 86% of
those with radio tags moved predominantly at the channel-unit scale (2–95 m); fewer tagged fish moved at
the reach scale (66–734 m) and segment scale (229–3,479 m). In general, movement was greatest in April as
spawning peaked and lowest in October, when discharge was at its lowest. Only 63 (,1% of tagged and
marked fish) coastal cutthroat trout were captured in the fish trap. Trap efficiency was about 33%, and the
expanded estimate of emigrants between February and June was 173 fish. These results suggest that unitscale
movement is common throughout the year and that reach- and segment-scale movements are important
during the winter and spring. Although movement in headwater streams is most common at the channel-unit
scale, restoration of individual channel units of stream may not benefit the population at the watershed scale
unless these activities are undertaken in the context of the greater whole. Individual coastal cutthroat trout
move great distances, even within the small watersheds in the Oregon Coast Range, and although these
movements may be infrequent, they may contribute substantially to recolonization after stochastic extirpation
events (e.g., landslides and debris flows). Management strategies that focus on maintaining and restoring
connectivity in a watershed represent an important step toward protecting the evolutionary capacity of stream
salmonids.
Most animals have the
 
Gresswell, S., et al. (1979). Mass movement response to forest management in the Central Oregon Coast Ranges, US Forest Service. 84: 1-26.
Gretener, P. E. (1967). "Signifigance of the rare event in geology." The American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 51(11): 2197-2206.
Griffiths, G. A. (1979). "Recent Sedimentation history of the Waimakariri River, New Zealand." Journal of Hydrology (New Zealand) 18: 6-28.
Griffiths, G. A. (1980). "Stochastic Estimation of Bed Load Yield in Pool-and-Riffle Mountain Streams." Water Resources Research 16(5): 931-937.
In many mountain streams the supply of gravel, transported as bed load, is predominantly infuenced by the stbility of a restricted area of riparian land. During stroms this zone contributes sediment to the stream through random mass movements and stream bank collapse with the result that floods, having similar hydrographs, produce different bed load yields. A stochastic model is developed which predicts total expected bed load yield from a given basin, in a prescribed interval, through the convolution of a Poisson number of events with an exponential probabiity of bed load yield. The exponential distribution is defined from regional flood frequency relations, an empirical bed load transport formula, and flow records from a nearby basin within the same hydrologic regime as the one under consideration; the expected number of events in an interval is also determined from these flow records. The model may be applied to small mountain watersheds, ungauged for either water or sediment outflows.
 
Griffiths, G. A. (1989). "Form Resistance in Gravel Channels with Mobile Beds " Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 115(3): 340-355.
Griffiths, G. A. (?). "Recent Sedimentation History of the Waimakariri River, New Zealand." 6-27.
Griffiths, G. A. and D. M. Hicks (1980). "Transport of sediment in mountain streams; performance of a measurement system during a two year storm (note)." Journal of Hydrology. New Zealand 19(2): 131-136.
Dry Acheron Stream, a small tributary of Rakaia River, drains a 21 km (super 2) area of eastern Southern Alps, New Zealand. Alpine and montane grassland, scrub, bare rock and scree occupy the mountainous portion of its catchment except for a 0.6 km (super 2) area of hardwood forest (Notofagus), near the basin centre. Altitude ranges from 650 to 1540 m and mean annual rainfall is approximately 2000 mm. Within the upper basin the stream channel is deeply entrenched, and is characterised by a pool-and-rifle geometry defined by channel boundaries of boulders and cobbles. Average stream gradient is 0.167. To provide quantitative assessments of sediment yields and transport patterns, a water and sediment discharge recording station was recently constructed just downstream of where the stream exits from its mountainous upper catchment (6 km (super 2) ). The station comprises three structures: (1) a weir to furnish a stable, rated, water discharge record and a convenient site to sample sediment load; (2) a debris-retention dam to trap most of the sediment load; and (3) a platform on the downstream side of the dam to allow sampling of material escaping through or over the dam. The purpose of this note is to describe the operation of the station and to present results from a recent flood which provided a test of the measuring system.
 
Griffiths, P. G., et al. (1996). Initiation and frequency of debris flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona. Tucson, AZ, U. S. Geological Survey: 40.
Griffiths, P. G., et al. (2004). "Frequency and initiation of debris flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona." Journal of Geophysical Research 109(doi:10.1029/2003JF000077): 14.
Griggs, G. B. (1987). The production, transport, and delivery of coarse-grained sediment by California's coastal streams. N. C. Kraus. New York, Am. Soc. Civ. Eng.
Grimm, M. M., et al. (1995). "Coarse-sediment deposition as evidence of an elevation limit for flash flooding, Bear Creek, Colorado." Geomorphology 14: 199-210.
Grimm, N. B. (1987). "Nitrogen dynamics during succession in a desert stream." Ecology 68: 1157-1170.
Griswold, J. and R. M. Iverson (2002). Inundation-area statistics and mobility equations for debris flows and rock avalanches. Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section - 98th Annual Meeting. Corvallis, Oregon.
Inundation-area statistics have been used previously to establish equations that predict the maximum valley cross-sectional areas (A) and the total planimetric areas (B) inundated by lahars with various lahar volumes (V). The predictive equations obey 2/3 power laws and have the scale-invariant forms A=a1V2/3 and B=a2V2/3, where the a coefficients are calibrated using a database of lahar geometries around the world 1. Here, a new database is used to show that similar 2/3 power law equations apply to non-volcanic debris flows and rock avalanches. With recalibration of a coefficients, two new sets of equations are established to predict the cross-sectional and planimetric areas inundated by these types of rapid mass movements. These new equations provide an objective methodology for discriminating the mobilities of lahars, non-volcanic debris flows, and rock avalanches on the basis of a coefficients. Moreover, the mobility equations can be embedded in a GIS-based computer program, LAHARZ 1 , to generate hazard maps that depict inundation limits for debris flows and avalanches with a range of hypothetical volumes. In depicting hazards from comonplace flows or avalanches with volumes less than about one million cubic meters, satisfactory implemetation of LAHARZ requires high-accuracy, high-resolution digital topographic data. Such data are not widely available at present but will likely become more available in the future.
 
 
Grizzel, J. D. (2006). Geotechnical Assessment, "East Fork Tarboo" Timber Sale. Olympia, WA, Washington Department of Natural Resources: 22.
Grizzel, J. D. and N. Wolff (1998). "Occurrence of Windthrow in Forest Buffer Strips and its Effect on Small Streams in Northwest Washington." Northwest Science 72(3): 214-223.
Gross, M. R., et al. (1988). "Aquatic Productivity and Evolution of Diadromous Fish Migration." Science 239: 1291-1293.
Group, T. G. S. (1997). California Precipitation.
Group, T. G. S. (1997). "California Precipitation." from http://gis.ca.gov/casil/gis.ca.gov/teale/precipa/.
Grunwald, S. a. L. D. N. (1999). "An AGNPS-based runoff and sediment yield model for two small watersheds in Germany." Transactions of the ASAE 42(6): 1723-1731.
Guisan, A., et al. (2002). "Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: setting the scene." Ecological Modelling 157: 89-100.
An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by
generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers
prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species
distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6 /11 August 2001.We first discuss some
general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of
GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some
of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of
several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of
predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other
approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their
application to ecological modeling.
 
Gunten, H. R. v. and R. N. Moser (1993). "How reliable is the Pb^210 dating method? Old and new results from Switzerland " Journal of Paleolimnology 9: 161-178.
Gupta, A. "Large Floods as Geomorphic Events in the Humid Tropics."
Gupta, S. K. and S. S. I. (1977). Distributed Numerical Model for Estimating Runoff and Sediment Discharge of Ungaged Rivers: 1. The Information System. Gupta and Solomon: Modeling Runoff and River Transport: 613-634.
Gupta, V. K. and E. Waymire (1989). "Statistical Self-Similarity in River Networks Parameterized by Elevation." Water Resources Research 25(3): 463-476.
Gupta, V. K., et al. (1980). "A representation of an instantaneous unit hydrograph from geomorphology." Water Resources Research 16(5): 855-862.
Gurnell, A. M. and M. J. Clark (1987). Glacio-Fluvial Sediment Transfer: An Alpine Perspective, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Gustafson, E. J. (1998). "Quantifying Landscape Spatial Pattern: What is the State of the Art?" Ecosystems 1: 143-156.
Gustafson, E. J. and G. R. Parker (1992). "Relationships between landcover proportion and indices of landscape spatial pattern." Landscape Ecology 7(2): 101-110.
Gustafson-Greenwood, I. and J. R. Moring (1990). "Territory size and distribution of newly-emerged Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar) "? 206: 125-131.
Gustafson-Marjanen, K. I. and J. R. Moring (1984). "Construction of Artificial Redds for Evaluating Survival of Atlantic Salmon Eggs and Alevins " North American Journal of Fisheries Management 4: 455-461.
Guthrie, R. H. and S. G. Evans (2004). "Analysis of landslide frequencies and characteristics in a natural system, coastal British Columbia." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29: 1321-1339.
Guyette, R. P., et al. (2002). "Perspectives on the age and distribution of large wood in riparian carbon pools." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59(3): 578-585.
Guzzetti, F., et al. (2000). "Comparing landslide maps: a case study in the Upper tiber Rivere Basin, Central Italy." Environmental Management 25: 247-263.
Guzzetti, F., et al. (1999). "Landslide hazard evaluation: a review of current techniques and their application in a multi-scale study, Central Italy." Geomorphology 31: 181-216.
Gyssels, G. and J. Poesen (2003). "The importance of plant root characteristics in controlling concentrated flow erosion rates." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(4): 371-384.
While it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that the aboveground characteristics of the vegetation are of particular importance with respect to soil erosion control, this study argues the importance of separating the influence of vegetation on soil erosion rates into two parts: the impact of leaves and stems (aboveground biomass) and the influence of roots (belowground biomass). Although both plant parameters form inseparable constituents of the total plant organism, most studies attribute the impact of vegetation on soil erosion rates mainly to the characteristics of the aboveground biomass. This triggers the question whether the belowground biomass is of no or negligible importance with respect to soil erosion by concentrated flow. This study tried to answer this question by comparing cross-sectional areas of concentrated flow channels (rills and ephemeral gullies) in the Belgian Loess Belt for different cereal and grass plant densities. The results of these measurements highlighted the fact that both an increase in shoot density as well as an increase in root density resulted in an exponential decrease of concentrated flow erosion rates. Since protection of the soil surface in the early plant growth stages is crucial with respect to the reduction of water erosion rates, increasing the plant root density in the topsoil could be a viable erosion control strategy. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
 
Gyssels, G., et al. (2002). "The impact of sowing density of small grains on rill and ephemeral gully erosion in concentrated flow zones." Soil & Tillage Research 64(3-4): 189-201.
Despite the fact that soil erosion by water causes considerable on-site and off-site problems, farmers in Europe are reluctant to adopt prevention and control measures when such measures require additional labour and material inputs. This paper documents the impact of multiple sowing of small grains on concentrated flow erosion rates and grain production for a winter triticale field (X Triticosecale Wittmack ex. A. Camus) in the Belgian loess belt. Multiple sowing refers to drilling more than once in zones of concentrated flow erosion in order to increase the total root mass in this zone. Multiple sowing strongly altered the morphology of erosion channels and reduced soil loss significantly. Statistical analysis confirmed that differences in channel dimensions could be explained by the seedling density. Doubling the root mass in the topsoil by multiple sowing' resulted on average in a reduction of soil loss by 42% for the whole growing season. For the winter period, soil loss reduction, mainly attributed to the triticale roots, amounted even to 53%, showing the tremendous impact of seedling roots on soil erosion by concentrated overland flow in the early stages of vegetation growth. Furthermore, total grain yield in the multiple drilled zones was not significantly smaller compared to the conventionally drilled parts of the field. Grain size of cereals was slightly smaller. The results of this case study indicate that double sowing in concentrated overland flow zones may be a viable soil erosion control technique. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
 
Gyssels G, a. J. P. (2003). "The importance of plant root characteristics in controlling concentrated flow erosion rates." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28: 371-384.
H. M. Gucinski, H. B., M. J. Furniss, R. R. Ziemer (2001). "Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information." U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GRT-509, Portland Oregon: 103.
Haan, C. T. (2003). Analysis of Hydrologic Time Series. Statistical Methods in Hydrology, The Iowa State University Press: 1-13.
Hack, J. T. (1957). "Studies of longitudinal stream profiles in Virginia and Maryland." United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 294B.
Hack, J. T. (1957). Studies of longitudinal stream profiles in Virginia and Maryland, US Geological Survey: 97.
Hack, J. T. (1976). Dynamic equilibrium and landscape evolution. Theories of landform development: Publications in geomorphology. W. N. Melhorn and R. C. Flemal. Binghamton, N.Y., State University of New York: 87-102.
Hack, J. T. and J. C. Goodlett (1960). Geomorphology and Forest Ecology of a Mountain Region in the Central Appalachians, United States Geological Survey: 1-63.
Hack, J. T. and J. C. Goodlett (1960). Geomorphology and Forest ecology of a Mountain Region in the Central Appalachians, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 347: 66.
Hack, J. T. and J. C. Goodlett (1960). Geomorphology and forest ecology of a mountain region in the central Appalachians, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 347: 66.
Haga, H., et al. (2002). "Transport and retention of coarse woody debris in mountain streams: An in situ field experiment of log transport and a field survey of coarse woody debris distribution." Water Resources Research 38(8): 1126.
Although coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important component of stream
ecosystems in forested areas, the processes of CWD distribution, transport, and retention
have not been clarified. In this study the distribution process of CWD pieces shorter than
the bankfull width (S-CWD) is discussed using an in situ field experiment of log
transport and a field survey of CWD distribution in mountain streams. The transport
experiment showed that transport distance has a close relation to flow depth and also
implied that the magnitude and sequence of a series of flows were important factors for
S-CWD transport and retention in streams. The survey of CWD distribution indicated
that in-stream obstructions played an important role in the S-CWD retention in deeper
channels where S-CWD pieces were potentially transported distances more than spacing
between trapping sites of CWD. Overall, the in situ field experiment and the segment- to
reach-scaled analysis using h* (=depth/diameter) helped us understand the actual
movement and distribution of CWD.
 
Haggerty, R., et al. (2002). "Power-law residence time distribution in the hyporheic zone of a 2nd-order mountain stream." Geophysical Research Letters 29(13): 18-11 - 18-14.
Hairsine, P. "Comparing grass filter strips and near-natural riparian zones for trapping sediment and sorbed nutrients."
In relating hillslope sediment and sorbed pollutant fluxes to in-stream water quality, it is often assumed that vegetation on the lower portions of hillslope can act as buffer or sink by storing sediment and pollutant. The study reported here compares the sediment and sorbed phosphorus filtering capabilities of grass filters with those of near-natural riparian zones. Fluxes of water, sediment and sorbed nutrients were measured at the inlet and outlet of the grass filter strips, riparian zones and a combination of both, with a range of sediment fluxes and runoff rates from an intense upslope source-area. Aggregate size fractionation of the sediment load found that both the filter strips and riparian zones were effective in trapping sediment for a large part of the size band. Although riparian zones did have lower overall trapping efficiencies, they were capable of significantly reducing sorbed nutrient transport where the pollutant was carried by sediment in aggregate size classes greater than 20 mm. It was concluded that in this environment, a well-configured combination of a grass filter strip and riparian zone provides a very effective means of reducing the ingress of sediment and sorbed pollutants into a stream, in the short term.
 
Hairsine, P. B., J.C. Croke, H. Mathews, P. Fogarty, and S. P. Mockler (2002). "Modelling plumes of overland flow from logging tracks." Hydrological Processes 16(12): 2311-2327.
Most land-based forestry systems use extensive networks of unsealed tracks to access the timber resource. These tracks are normally drained by constructing cross-banks, or water bars, across the tracks immediately following logging. Cross-banks serve three functions in controlling sediment movement within forestry compartments:1. they define the specific catchment area of the snig track (also known as skid trails) so that the overland flow does not develop sufficient energy to cause gullies, and sheet and rill erosion is reduced;2. they induce some sediment deposition as flow velocity reduces at the cross-bank;3. they redirect overland flow into the adjacent general harvesting area (GHA) so that further sediment deposition may take place.This paper describes a simple model that predicts the third of these functions in which the rate of runoff from the track is combined with spatial attributes of the track and stream network. Predictions of the extent of the overland flow plumes and the volume of water delivered to streams is probabilistically presented for a range of rainfall-event scenarios with rainfall intensity, time since logging and compartment layout as model inputs. Generic equations guiding the trade-off between intercross-bank length and flow path distance from cross-bank outlet to the stream network needed for infiltration of track runoff are derived. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
 
Hairsine, P. B., et al. "Unsteady soil erosion due to rainfall impact: A model of sediment sorting on the hillslope."
A new method is presented for predicting sediment sorting associated with soil erosion by raindrop impact for non-equilibrium conditions. The form of soil erosion considered is that which results from raindrop impact in the presence of shallow overland flow itself where the flow is not capable of eroding sediment. The method specifically considers early time runoff and erosion when sediment leaving an eroding area is generally finer and thus may have a higher potential for transport of sorbed pollutants. The new mechanism described is the formation of a deposited layer on the soil surface, which is shown to lead to sediment sorting during an erosion event. The deposited layer is taken to have two roles in this process: to temporarily store sediment on the surface between successive trajectories, and to shield the underlying soil from erosive stresses. Equations describing the dynamics of the suspended sediment mixture and the deposited layer are developed. By integrating these equations over the length of eroding land element and over the duration of the erosion event, an event-based solution is proposed which predicts total sediment sorting over the event. This solution is shown to be consistent with experimentally observed trends in enrichment of fine sediment. Predictions using this approach are found to only partly explain measured enrichment for sets of experimental data for two quite different soils, but to be in poor agreement for an aridsol of dispersive character. It is concluded that the formation of the deposited layer is a significant mechanism in the enrichment of fine sediment and associated sorbed pollutants, but that processes in the dispersive soil are not as well described by the theory presented.
 
Halbert, C. L. (1993). "How Adaptive is Adaptive Management? Implementing Adaptive Management in Washington State and British Columbia." Reviews in Fisheries Science 1(3): 261-283.
Hales, Z. L., et al. (1970). "Riverbed Degradation Prediction." Water Resources Research 6(2): 549-556.
Hall, D. E., et al., Eds. (1994). Slope Stability Reference Guide for National Forests in the United States. Washington D.C., United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.
Hall, J. E., et al. (2007). "Predicting river floodplain and lateral channel migration for salmon habitat conservation." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(3): 786-797.
In this article, we describe a method for predicting floodplain locations and potential lateral channel
migration across 82,900 km (491 km2 by bankfull area) of streams in the Columbia River basin. Predictions
are based on channel confinement, channel slope, bankfull width, and bankfull depth derived from digital elevation
and precipitation data. Half of the 367 km2 (47,900 km by length) of low-gradient channels (£ 4% channel
slope) were classified as floodplain channels with a high likelihood of lateral channel migration (182 km2, 50%).
Classification agreement between modeled and field-measured floodplain confinement was 85% (j = 0.46,
p < 0.001) with the largest source of error being the misclassification of unconfined channels as confined (55%
omission error). Classification agreement between predicted channel migration and lateral migration determined
from aerial photographs was 76% (j = 0.53, p < 0.001) with the largest source of error being the misclassification
of laterally migrating channels as non-migrating (35% omission error). On average, more salmon populations
were associated with laterally migrating channels and floodplains than with confined or nonmigrating channels.
These data are useful for many river basin planning applications, including identification of land use impacts to
floodplain habitats and locations with restoration potential for listed salmonids or other species of concern.
 
Hallin, W. (1934). "Fast growing redwood." Journal of Forestry 32: 612-613.
Halwas, K., et al. (1997). Stream Hydroriparian Ecosystem Classification: Accurate Representation of Aribitrary Convenience? Vancouver, British Columbia, University of British Columbia: 1-40.
Ham, D. G. (1996). Patterns of Channel Change on Chilliwach River, British Columbia. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.
Ham, D. G., and M. Church (2000). "Bed-material transport estimated from channel morphodynamics: Chilliwack River, British Columbia." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25: 1123-1142.
Hammond, C., et al. (1992). Level 1 Stability Analysis (LISA) Documentation for Version 2.0. Ogden, Utah, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
Hammond, H. (1983). Soil disturbance levels in ground skidded clearcuts in Southeastern British Columbia. New Forests for a Changing World, Portland, Oregon.
Hammond, H. L. (1988). Soil Degradation: Costs of Rehabilitation Versus Costs of  Prevention. Degradation of Forested Land: "Forest soils at risk", British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Land Management.
Hampton, M. A. (1975). "Competence of fine-grained debris flows." Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 45(4): 834-844.
Hancock, G. R. and K. G. Evans (2006). "Channel head location and characteristics using digital elevation models." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31: 809-824.
The drainage network is the conduit through which much surface water and sediment
are routed within a catchment. In a catchment, the position of where hillslopes begin and
channels end has long been considered the position of transition between diffusive processes
upslope and the more incisive fluvial processes downslope. Consequently, understanding
channel head location is an important issue in understanding catchment hydrology and
geomorphology. This study examines channel head position and characteristics in a catchment
in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. In this study the position of channel
heads was mapped within the catchment and plotted on a reliable digital elevation model of
the catchment. It was found that the majority of channel heads have relatively small source
areas and that graphical catchment descriptors, such as the area–slope relationship and
cumulative area distribution, can provide reliable measures of the field position of the heads
of first-order streams and the transition from hillslope to channel. The area–slope relationship
and cumulative area distribution are also shown to be good tools for determining digital
elevation model grid size which can capture hillslope detail and the transition from hillslope
to channel.
 
Hancock, G. S., et al. (1999). "Dating fluvial terraces with ^10Be and ^26Al profiles: application to the Wind River Wyoming." Geomorphology 27: 41-60.
Hankin, S. (1984). Soil Strength Reinforcement form Distributions of Roots: A Mathematical Approach. ?, ?: 32.
Hankin, S. (1984). "Soil Strength Reinforcement from Distributions of Roots: A Mathematical Approach (DRAFT)." 32.
Hanks, T. C. (?). The age of scarpelike landforms from diffusion-equation analysis Dating and Earthquakes: Review of Quaternary Geochronology and its Applications to Paleoseismology: 497-535.
Hann, C. T. (1977). Statistical Methods in Hydrology. Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press.
Hansen, A. J., et al. (1991). "Conserving Biodiversity in Managed Forests: Lessons from natural forests." BioScience 41(6): 382-391.
Hansen, W. F. (2001). "Identifying stream types and management implications." Forest Ecology and Management 143: 39-46.
Characteristics of stream types were surveyed within the Chattooga River watershed in the Blue Ridge Mountains of southeastern US. The 728 km2 watershed is contained within the states of Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina. The stream types of about 190 streams of various sizes were determined as perennial, intermittent or ephemeral using a combination of physical and biological indicators. The key indicators were defined as channel erosion into the landscape and aquatic insects. Comparisons were made between the measured stream characteristics and their hydrologic orders. The stream data indicated that most headwater order 1 streams were either ephemeral or intermittent. Order 2 streams were divided among intermittent, perennial and ephemeral. All order 3 streams and larger ones were perennial, except for one small, third order intermittent stream with an 18% channel gradient. The data suggest that the total 4670 km stream network was approximately equally divided between defined channels (28% perennial and 17% intermittent) and undefined channels (55% ephemeral). Changes in stream order produced exponential changes in the total number, mean segment length and total length of streams. The fine detail included about 15,630 order 1 channels with a combined length of 2740 km. Comparisons are provided between the estimated extent of stream types and the ‘blue-line’ streams identified on the US Geological Survey topographic contour maps at both 1:24,000 and 1:100,000 scales. Streams indicated on the 1:100,000 scale maps identified about 650 km of streams, while the 1:24,000 scale mapped the blue-line stream extent at 970 km. Of the estimated 1300 km of perennial streams, the topographic maps identified 50–75%, depending on scale. However, only about 14–21% of the entire stream network which includes perennial, intermittent and ephemeral streams were marked on the topographic contour maps. Recommendations are included for improving the consistency of how ‘stream orders’ and ‘stream types’ are delineated. Since water quality protection measures are often related to the stream type, improvement in identifying streams should improve stream protection design and help to prevent impacts on water quality and aquatic habitat.
 
Harcombe, P. A. (1987). "Tree Life Tables." BioScience 37(8): 557-568.
Harden, D. R. (1995). A comparison of flood-producing storms and their impacts in northwestern California. Geomorphic Processes and Aquatic Habitat in the Redwood Creek Basin, Northwestern California., US Geological Survey: D1 - D9.
Hare, P. W. and T. W. Gardner (1985). Geomorphic indicators of vertical neotectonism along converging plate margins, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Tectonic Geomorphology. J. Hack and M. Morisawa: 75-104.
Hare, S. R., et al. (1999). "Inverse Production Regimes: Alaska and West Coast Pacific Salmon." Fisheries 24(1): 6-14.
Hargis, C., et al. (1998). "The behavior of landscape metrics commonly used in the study of habitat fragmentation." Landscape Ecology 13: 167-186.
Harmon, M. E. (1992). Long-term experiments on Log Decomposition at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, U.S. Forest Service: 1-28.
Harmon, M. E., et al. (1986). "Ecology of Coarse Woody Debris in Temperate Ecoystems." Advances in Ecological Research 15: 133-302.
Harmon, M. E. and C. Hua (1991). "Coarse woody debris dynamics in two old-growth ecosystems." BioScience 41(9): 604-610.
Harr, R. D. (1977). "Water Flux in Soil and Subsoil on a Steep Forested Slope." Journal of Hydrology 33: 37-58.
Harr, R. D. (1979). Effects of Timber Harvest on Streamflow in the Rain-Dominated Portion of the Pacific Northwest. Workshop on Scheduling Timber Harvest for Hydrologic Concerns.
Harr, R. D. (1981). "Some Characteristics and Consequences of Snowmelt During Rainfall in Western Oregon." Journal of Hydrology 53: 277-304.
Harr, R. D. (1986). "Effects of Clearcutting on Rain-on-Snow Runoff in Western Oregon: A New Look at Old Studies." Water Resources Research 22(7): 1095-1100.
Harr, R. D. (1992). Flooding in West Cascade Mountain River Basins: A Perspective on the November 1990 Flooding of Western Washington. Seattle, Washington, Pacific Northwest Research Station.
Harr, R. D., et al. (1989). Effects of timber harvest on rain-on-snow runoff in the transient snow zone of the Washinton Cascades. Seattle, Washington, University of Washington: 29.
Harr, R. D. and T. W. Cundy (1992). The November 1990 floods in Western Washington, U.S.A. Interpraevent 1992, Bern.
Harr, R. D., et al. (1979). Changes in Streamflow Following Timber Harvest in Southwestern Oregon. Portland, Oregon, US Forest Service: 22.
Harr, R. D., et al. (1975). "Changes in Storm Hydrographs After Road Building and Clear-Cutting in the Oregon Coast Range." Water Resources Research 11(3): 436-444.
Harr, R. D., et al. (1982). "Streamflow Changes After Logging 130-year-Old Douglas Fir in Two Small Watersheds." Water Resources Research 18(3): 637-644.
Harrelson, C. C., et al. (1994). Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique US Forest Service: 61.
Harris, D. D. (1977). Hydrologic Changes After Logging in Two Small Oregon Coastal Watersheds, U.S. Geological Survey: 31.
Harris, D. D., et al. (1979). Magnitude and frequency of floods in western Oregon. Portland, U.S. Geological Survey.
Harris, D. D. and R. C. Williams (1971). Streamflow, Sediment-Transport, and Water-Temperature Characteristics of Three Small Watersheds in the Alsea River Basin, Oregon, U. S. Department of the Interior.
Harris, R. M., et al. (1999). Upper Umatilla River sediment analysis. American Water Resources Association Technical Publication Series TPS, vol.99-3: 157-166.
The Umatilla River in Northeastern Oregon provides multiple beneficial uses, including native salmon habitat, water supply, and recreation. Water quality issues include developing TMDLs for sediment and temperature. The Forest Service operates three monitoring sites in the upper watershed with 34 years of streamflow records and 11 years of suspended sediment records. These stations were analyzed, with a focus on quantifying the annual and seasonal sediment loads and on the relationships between suspended sediment and discharge. We found: 1) high spatial and temporal variability in annual sediment loads between stations, and at the same station year to year, and 2) a lack of correlation between streamflow and sediment indicating complex streamflow and sediment supply relationships. Recommendations include future analysis to evaluate the reliability of automatic fixed point sampling by collecting concurrent depth integrated samples; future analysis to determine the frequency of sampling needed to characterize the sediment parameters; and, adding bedload sampling to determine bedload contribution to total load.
 
Hartley, C. (1958). Evaluation of wood decay in experimental work. Madison, Wisconsin, USDA Forest Service.
Hartman, G. F. and T. G. Brown (1987). "Use of Small Temporary, Floodplain Tributaries by Juvenile Salmonids in a West Coast Rain-Forest Drainage Basin, Carnation Creek, British Columbia " Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 262-270.
Hartman, G. F., et al. (1996). "Impacts of logging in Carnation Creek, a high-energy coastal stream in British Columbia, and their implication for restoring fish habitat." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 53(Suppl. 1): 237-251.
The land form, surficial geology, and hydrometeorology of the west coast of British Columbia cause streams in
the region to be highly variable in flow and vulnerable to land-use disturbance. Carnation Creek, a small drainage in this
region, was studied intensively for > 20 yr to examine the impacts of forest harvesting. Landslides and debris torrents
modified steep slope tributaries and the mainstem of the creek. Bank erosion also altered the stream channel on the alluvial
flood plain. These effects were additive in the system and reduced the quality of spawning and rearing habitat for juvenile
salmonids. In streams like Carnation Creek, it is necessary to restore some stability to the hill slopes and gullies before
attempting fish habitat improvements in the main channel. Salmonid production was limited by combinations of processes
and conditions that were different for each species and life-history stage. Knowledge of the processes that limit fish
production must be applied in habitat improvement work or the projects risk failure. Programs intended to restore natural
function to systems or to improve habitat for fish must be planned, evaluated, and reported methodically if they are to
succeed and provide information of use to future programs.
 
Harvey, A. M. (1991). "The influence of sediment supply on the channel morphology of upland streams: Howgill Fells, Northwest England." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 16: 675-684.
Previous work on stream channels in upland areas of Britain has demonstrated a close control over channel morphology and stability by the rate of coars sediment supply form the hillslopes of the chatchment. Streams fed by large amounts of coarse sediment develop unstable, wide, often braided channels, whereas those with limited coarse sediment supply develop stable, much narrower, often meandering channels. The sediment supply from hillslopes is controlled by thresholds of hillslope stability, storm event frequency, and the coupling between the hillslopes and the channel. Climatically induced changes in any of these three factors may have implications for channel morphology and stability. This paper examines these implications in British upland fluvial systems, with particular reference to the Howgill Fells, Cumbria, in the contexts of the adjuxtment of stream channels to sediment supply from erosional gully systems, and their response to and recovery from major flood events.
 
Harvey, A. M. (1997). The role of alluvial fans in arid zone fluvial systems. Arid Zone Geomorphology. D. S. G. Thomas. Chichester, Wiley: 231-259.
Harvey, B. C. and T. E. Lisle (1999). "Scour of Chinook Salmon Redds on Suction Dredge Tailings " North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19: 613-617.
Harvey, B. C. and R. J. Nakamoto (1996). "Effects of Steelhead Density on Growth of Coho Salmon in a Small Coastal California Stream " Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125: 237-243.
Harvey, B. C., et al. (2002). "Habitat relationships and larval drift of native and nonindigeneous fishes in neighboring tributaries of a coastal California river." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131: 159-170.
Motivated by a particular interest in the distribution of the nonindigenous, piscivorous Sacramento pikeminnow Ptychocheilus grandis, we examined fish–habitat relationships in small tributaries (draining 20–200 km2) in the Eel River drainage of northwestern California. We sampled juvenile and adult fish in 15 tributaries in both the summer and fall of 1995 and attempted to relate the densities of the most abundant species to physical variables. To determine which species used small tributaries for spawning, we also collected drifting larval fish during the spring of 1996 and 1997. Water temperature, as measured by maximum weekly average temperature, dominated the relationships between physical variables and the densities of age-0 Sacramento pikeminnow, age-0 steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss, California roach Hesperoleucus symmetricus (also known as Lavinia symmetricus), and Sacramento sucker Catostomus occidentalis. Of these groups, only age-0 steelhead were most abundant in cool tributaries. In contrast to results for these groups, temperature regime, instream cover, summer discharge, and water depth contributed approximately equally to the best-fitting models of post-age-0 steelhead abundance. Drift samples revealed widespread use of tributaries for reproduction by both native species and the nonindigenous California roach. We also found drifting larval Sacramento pikeminnows in five streams that ranged widely in size. Temperature regimes in many Eel River tributaries have been affected by both human activities and large floods over the last 50 years. This study suggests that (1) these changes in temperature regime enhanced invasion of the drainage by nonindigenous fishes and (2) management efforts that alter temperature regimes in Eel River tributaries will have significant consequences for the composition of fish assemblages in general and for the effects of Sacramento pikeminnow in particular.
 
Harvey, J. W. and K. E. Bencala (1993). "The effect of streambed topography on surface-subsurface water exchange in mountain catchments." Water Resources Research 29(1): 89-98.
Harvey, M. D., et al. (1992). Estimating sediment delivery and yield on alluvial fans. Special Publication - Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, vol.24. Boulder, Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center: 238.
Harvey, M. D. and C. C. Watson (1986). "Fluvial Processes and Morphological Thresholds in Incised Channel Restoration." Water Resources Bulletin 22(3): 359-368.
Haschenburger, J. K. (1996). Scour and fill in a gravel-bed channel: observations and stochastic models. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia.
Haschenburger, J. K. (1996). Scour and fill in a gravel-bed channel: observations and stochiastic models Department of Geography, University of British Columbia: 144.
Haschenburger, J. K., and M. Church (1998). "Bed material transport estimated from the virtual velocity of sediment." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23: 791-808.
Haschenburger, J. K. (1998). Channel scour and fill in coastal streams. Carnation Creek and Queen Charlotte Islands Fish/Forestry Workshop: Applying 20 years of Coastal Research to management Solutions: Land Management Handbook 41. D. L. Hogan, P. J. Tschaplinski and S. Chatwin. Victoria, B.C., B.C. Ministry of Forests: 109-117.
Haschenburger, J. K. (1999). "A probability model of scour and fill depths in gravel-bed channels." Water Resources Research 35(9): 2857-2869.
Haschenburger, J. K. and M. Church (1998). "Bed material transport estimated from the virtual velocity of sediment." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23: 791-808.
Hassan, M. A. (1990). "Scour, fill, and burial depth of coarse material in gravel bed streams " Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 15: 341-356.
Hassan, M. A., M. Church, T.E. Lisle, F. Brardinoni, L. Benda, G.E. Grant (2005). "Sediment transport and channel morphology in small forested streams." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41(4): 853-876.
Hassan, M. A. (?). Sediment transport, channel morphology and dynamics of small-forested streams. Vancouver, B.C., University of British Columbia: 1-34.
Hassan, M. A. and M. Church (1992). The movement of individual grains on the streambed. Dynamics of Gravel-bed Rivers. P. Billi, R. D. Hey, C. R. Thorne and P. Tacconi, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: 159-175.
Hassan, M. A. and M. Church (1994). "Vertical mixing of coarse particles in gravel bed rivers: A kinematic model." Water  Resources Research 30(4): 1173-1185.
Hassan, M. A., et al. (1992). "Virtual rate and mean distance of travel of individual clats in gravel-bed channels." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 17: 617-627.
Travel distances in gravel-bed rivers of tagged particles of various sizes are related to excess stream power estimated for peak discharge. Mean distance of movement, irrespective of grain size, is weakly correlated with stream power, especially near the threshold of movement. There may be several reasons for the weak correlation, including variable effects of bed structure, varying magnitudes of sediment mobilizing events and sampling problems. Grain size itself is of marginal significance. Thevirtual rate of travel calculated using total time for which the flow is larger than that needed to initiate clast movement also bears a weak relation to the excess stream powere over the period. Better results are obtained by relating the virtual rate of travel to the first peak of the flow event only. This implies that the initial seeding of the tagged particles dominates the observations. Nonetheless, an underlying general relation is indicated by the data, which are derived from a wide range of flow regime types.
 
Hassan, M. A., et al. (2005). "Sediment transport and channel morphology of small, forested streams." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41: 853-876.
Hassan, M. A., et al. (1991). "Distance of Movement of Coarse Particles in Gravel Bed Streams." Water Resources Research 27(4): 503-511.
Hassan, M. A. and R. Egozi (2001). "Impact of wastewater discharge on the channel morphology of ephemeral streams." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 1285-1302.
Hassan, M. A., et al. (2005). "Spatial and temporal dynamics of wood in headwater streams of the Pacific Northwest." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41(4): 899-919.
This paper synthesizes information on the spatial and
temporal dynamics of wood in small streams in the Pacific Northwest
region of North America. The literature on this topic is somewhat
confused due to a lack of an accepted definition of what
constitutes “small” streams and what is the relative size of woody
debris contained within the channel. This paper presents a matrix
that defines woody debris relative to channel size and then discusses
the components of a wood budget. Headwater streams are in
close proximity to wood sources and, in steeplands, are often tightly
constrained by steep hillslopes. Special consideration is given to
ecosystem characteristics and to management practices that affect
the wood dynamics in this context. Knowledge gaps and uncertainties
that can be used to guide future research are identified. Very
little is currently known about the role of mass wasting in wood
recruitment and storage relative to other processes, such as bank
erosion and mortality, in larger streams. Further, very little work
has addressed the relative importance of different wood depletion
processes, especially those associated with wood transport. The
effect of other ecosystem variables on wood dynamics locally across
a watershed (from valley bottom to mountaintop) and regionally
across the landscape (from maritime to continental climates) is not
addressed. Finally, the scientific community has only begun to deal
with the effects of management practices on wood quantity, structure,
and movement in small streams
 
Hassan, M. A. and M. Klein (2002). "Fluvial adjustment of the Lower Jordan River to a drop in the Dead Sea Level." Geomorphology 45: 21-33.
Hassen, M. A. and M. Church (1992). "Virtual rate and mean distance of travel of individual clasts in gravel-bed channels." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 17: 617-627.
Hatten, J. (1991). The Effects of Debris Torrents on Spawning Gravel Quality in the Tributary Basins and Side-channels of the Hoh River, Washington (DRAFT). Forks, Washington, Hoh Indian Tribe: 19.
Hauer, F. R., et al. (1999). "Large woody debris in bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning streams of logged and wilderness watersheds in northwest Montana." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 56: 915-924.
We measured large woody debris (LWD) in 20 known bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning stream
reaches from logged and wilderness watersheds in northwestern Montana. Mean bankfull width of stream reaches was
14.1 m ranging from 3.9 to 36.7 m. Streams were large enough to move LWD and form aggregates. We determined
the characteristics of individual pieces of LWD that were interactive with the stream channel. Large, short pieces of
LWD attached to the stream bank were the most likely to be positioned perpendicular to stream flow, while large, long
pieces either tended to be parallel to the flow or, when attached, were most apt to extend across the channel thalweg.
Observations indicated that the majority of pools were formed as scour pools by either very large LWD pieces that
were perpendicular to the stream or multipiece LWD aggregates. Among reaches in wilderness watersheds, ratios of
large to small LWD, attached to unattached LWD, and with and without rootwads were relatively consistent. However,
among reaches with logging in the watershed, these ratios varied substantially. These results suggest that logging can
alter the complex balance of delivery, storage, and transport of LWD in northern Rocky Mountain streams, and
therefore, the likely substantive change in stream habitats.
 
Haugerud, R. A. and Anonymous (2002). "High-resolution public-domain topography for western Washington; the Puget Sound Lidar Consortium." Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America 34(5): 31.
Haugerud, R. A., et al. (2003). "High-resolution Lidar topography of the Puget Lowland, Washington - A bonanza for Earth Science." GSA Today(6): 4-10.
Havis (1993). "A Mathematical Model of Salmonid Spawning Habitat " Water Resources Bulletin 29(3): 435-444.
Hawkins, C. P. (1993). "A Hierarchical Approach to Classifying Stream Habitat Features " Fisheries 18(6): 3-12.
Hawkins, C. P., et al. (1983). "Density of Fish and Salamanders in Relation to Riparian Canopy and Physical Habitat in Streams of the Northwestern United States." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40(8): 1173-1185.
Hay, L. E., R.L. Wilby, and G. H. Leavesley (2000). "A comparison of delta change and downscaled GCM scenarios for three mountainous basins in the United States." Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36(2): 387-397.
Hays, W. H. and R. L. Schuster (1987). Maps Showing Ground-Failure Hazards in the Columbia River Valley Between Richland and Priest Rapids Dam, South-Central Washington.
He, C. (2003). "Integration of geographic information systems and simulation model for watershed management." Environmental Modelling & Software 18(8-9): 809-813.
He, H. S. (1999). "Spatially Explicit and stochastic simulation of forest-landscape fire disturbance and succession." Retrieved 3-14-02, 2002, from http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m2120/1_80/53870314/print.jhtml.
He, Q. and D. E. Walling (2003). "Testing distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery models using Cs-137 measurements." Hydrological Processes 17(5): 901-916.
Healey, M. C. (2009). "Resilient salmon, resilient fisheries for British Columbia, Canada." Ecology and Society 14(1).
Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.
 
Heaton, T. H. and S. H. Hartzell (1987). "Earthquake Hazards on the Cascadia Subduction Zone." Science 236: 162-168.
Hedger, R. D., et al. (2006). "Improving models of juvenile Atlantic salmon habitat use through high resolution remote sensing." Ecological Modelling 197: 505-511.
The effect of spatial variation in substrate size on juvenile Atlantic salmon density in the
Sainte-Marguerite, a major salmon-spawning river in QC, Canada, was investigated using
ground surveys and remote sensing. Densities of both fry and parr were determined by
single-pass electro-fishing at up to 48 sites along the length of the river in August of each
of the years from 1997 to 2004. Substrate size was determined by two techniques. Firstly, a
ground survey of median substrate size (D50) was conducted concurrently with the electrofishing,
providing information on the substrate actually experienced by the salmon at the
point of capture (a parcel area of 5m×20m for each site). Secondly, an airborne survey was
conducted along the length of the river in August 2002 using a helicopter-mounted digital
camera. Images from this survey were then processed to show the mean D50 in the area of
each image (an area from bank to bank, 60m in length along the river) encompassing each
parcel. Relationships between juvenile salmon density and substrate size were determined
using preference models where the model partitioning had been determined by regression
tree analysis. For comparison, preference models were also produced where themodel partitioning
was determined arbitrarily. The shape of the relationships between juvenile salmon
density and parcel D50 were similar to those between juvenile salmon density and mean
image D50. However, the relationship was stronger with mean image D50, suggesting that
the habitat surrounding the location in which juvenile salmon were found had a direct
influence on their density. Additionally, preference models determined from regression tree
analysis had greater explanatory power than those determined using an arbitrary partitioning
approach. These results suggest that remote sensing, alongside a robust approach
for determining preference models, may be an effective tool in modelling juvenile Atlantic
salmon habitat use.
 
Hedman, C. W., et al. (1996). "In-stream large woody debris loading and riparian forest seral stage associations in the southern Appalachian Mountains." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1218-1227.
Large woody debris (LWD) is an important ecological component of mountain streams. However,
the relation of LWD loading and riparian forest composition is poorly understood in the southern Appalachians.
In this study, 500-m reaches of 11 riparian forest-stream systems representing a 300-year sere were inventoried
and measured to obtain quantitative estimates and descriptions of in-stream LWD. Loading volumes ranged from
7.1 to 31.2 m3/100 m of stream, or between 3.6 and 13.2 kg/m2. LWD loadings were highly variable during
midseral stages of plant community succession, primarily because of the wide range in loading of American
chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.). Loadings increased linearly in late-successional through old-growth
systems over a 165-year interval. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) and American chestnut were
the most dominant carry-over LWD species in midsuccessional stream systems. Loading of eastern hemlock
LWD increased from midsuccessional through old-growth stages as the species became dominant in the riparian
forest. Without carry-over debris, LWD loadings would be extremely low in midsuccessional stream systems.
American chestnut was a major component of LWD in midsuccessional stream systems, despite the fact that it
has been unavailable for recruitment for decades.
 
Hedman, C. W., et al. (1996). "In-stream large woody debris loading and riparian forest seral stage associations in the southern Appalachian Mountains." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1218-1227.
Heede, B. H. (1972). Flow and Channel Characteristics of Two High Mountain Streams, USDA Forest Service: 1-12.
Heede, B. H. (1972). "Influences of a forest on the hydraulic geometry of two mountain streams." Water Resources Bulletin 8(3): 523-530.
Heede, B. H. (1985). "Channel adjustments to the removal of log steps: an experiment in a mountain stream." Environmental Management 9(5): 427-432.
Heede, B. H. (1987). "Overland flow and sediment delivery five years after timber harvest in a mixed conifer forest, Arizona, U.S.A." Journal of Hydrology 91(3-4): 205-216.
Heede, B. H., et al. (1988). "Sediment Delivery Linkages in a Chaparral Watershed Following a Wildfire." Environmental Management 12(3): 349-358.
Hegge, B. J. and G. Masselink (1996). "Spectral analysis of geomorphic time series: auto-spectrum." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21: 1021-1040.
Heggenes, J., et al. (1990). "Comparison of Three Methods for Studies of Stream Habitat Use by Young Brown Trout and Atlantic Salmon " Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119: 101-111.
Heikurainen, L. "Effect of cutting on the ground-water level on drained peatlands." 345-354.
Heimann, D. C. (1988). Recruitment trends and physical characteristics of large organic debris in Oregon Coast Range streams. Department of Forest Science. Corvallis, OR, Oregon State University.
Heimsath, A. M. and Anonymous (2001). Sediment production and transport on hilly landscapes. Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America. 33: 285.
The production and transport of sediment is the focus of extensive study across diverse landscapes. Landscape form has long been recognized to be shaped by processes of erosion, and model quantification of how landscape form may change due to external forcing depends on the laws chosen to characterize the dominant erosion. These laws are rarely based on field data, or direct observation, but are used widely to drive landscape evolution models. Here I focus on hilly soil mantled landscapes to demonstrate how two relatively new tools can be coupled and used to quantify erosion rates and mechanisms. Soil production rates are quantified using the in situ produced cosmogenic radionuclides, (super 10) Be and (super 26) Al, extracted from bedrock beneath the soil mantle. Nuclide concentrations are used to infer both local and catchment-averaged (when measured from stream sediments) erosion rates as extensive studies have demonstrated elsewhere. Hillslope sediment transport processes have been quantified by other studies using segmented rods, short-lived isotopes (under very constrained conditions), and fallout (super 10) Be. I show how both short-lived isotopes and a new method of using optically stimulated luminescence can be used where soil production or erosion rates are known to determine the dominant transport mechanisms. Specific examples from southeastern Australia (using OSL) and the Hubbard Brook experimental watershed in New Hampshire (using the short-lived isotopes (super 210) Pb, (super 7) Be, and (super 137) Cs) show how thoroughly the soil profiles are bioturbated and emphasize the role of overland flow in shaping the landscape. A Monte Carlo model helps connect the nuclide results with the transport results to suggest that grain movements are independent and random. The model also suggests that 20% of the transported soil was removed by overland flow over roughly the last 10 ka. This helps explain the divergence of field observations from a prediction of slope morphology and soil depth based on a simple diffusion model. These field results further support a new transport model that combined expressions for simple creep, depth-dependent creep and overland flow to predict soil thickness and suggest how a landscape evolves in response to climatic and tectonic forces.
 
Heimsath, A. M., et al. "Stochastic processes of soil production and transport: Erosion rates, topographic variation and cosmogenic nuclides in the Oregon Coast Range."
Landscapes in areas of active uplift and erosion can only remain soil-mantled if the local production of soil equals or exceeds the local erosion rate. The soil production rate varies with soil depth, hence local variation in soil depth may provide clues about spatial variation in erosion rates. If uplift and the consequent erosion rates are sufficiently uniform in space and time, then there will be tendency toward equilibrium landforms shaped by the erosional processes. Soil mantle thickness would adjust such that soil production matched the erosion. Previous work in the Oregon Coast Range suggested that there may be a tendency locally toward equilibrium between hillslope erosion and sediment yield. Here results from a new methodology based on cosmogenic radionuclide accumulation in bedrock minerals at the base of the soil column are reported. We quantify how soil production varies with soil thickness in the southern Oregon Coast Range and explore further the issue of landscape equilibrium. Apparent soil production is determined to be an inverse exponential function of soil depth, with a maximum inferred production rate of 268 m Ma super(-1) occurring under zero soil depth. This rate depends, however, on the degree of weathering of the underlying bedrock. The stochastic and large-scale nature of soil production by biogenic processes leads to large temporal and spatial variations in soil depth; the spatial variation of soil depth neither supports nor rejects equilibrium morphology. Our observed catchment-averaged erosion rate of 117 m Ma super(-1) is, however, similar to that estimated for the region by others, and to soil production rates under thin and intermediate soils typical for the steep ridges. We suggest that portions of the Oregon Coast Range may be eroding at roughly the same rate, but that local competition between drainage networks and episodic erosional events leads to landforms that are out of equilibrium locally and have a spatially varying soil mantle.
 
Heimsath, A. M., et al. (1999). "Cosmogenic nuclides topography and the spatial variation of soil depth." Geomorphology 27: 151-172.
Heimsath, A. M., et al. (2001). "Stochastic processes of soil production and transport: erosion rates, topographic variation and cosmogenic nuclides in the Oregon Coast Range." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 531-552.
Landscapes in areas of active uplift and erosion can only remain soil-mantled if the local production of soil equals or exceeds
the local erosion rate. The soil production rate varies with soil depth, hence local variation in soil depth may provide clues
about spatial variation in erosion rates. If uplift and the consequent erosion rates are sufficiently uniform in space and time,
then there will be tendency toward equilibrium landforms shaped by the erosional processes. Soil mantle thickness would
adjust such that soil production matched the erosion. Previous workin the Oregon Coast Range suggested that theremaybe a
tendency locally toward equilibrium between hillslope erosion and sediment yield. Here results from a new methodology
basedoncosmogenic radionuclide accumulation in bedrock minerals at the base of the soil column are reported.Wequantify
howsoil production varies with soil thickness in the southern Oregon Coast Range and explore further the issue of landscape
equilibrium. Apparent soil production is determined to be an inverse exponential function of soil depth, with a maximum
inferred production rate of 268 m Ma 1 occurring under zero soil depth. This rate depends, however, on the degree of
weathering of the underlying bedrock.The stochastic and large-scale nature of soil production bybiogenic processes leads to
large temporal and spatial variations in soil depth; the spatial variation of soil depth neither supports nor rejects equilibrium
morphology. Our observed catchment-averaged erosion rate of 117 m Ma 1 is, however, similar to that estimated for the
region by others, and to soil production rates under thin and intermediate soils typical for the steep ridges. We suggest that
portions of the Oregon Coast Range may be eroding at roughly the same rate, but that local competition between drainage
networks and episodic erosional events leads to landforms that are out of equilibrium locally and have a spatially varying soil
mantle.
 
Heine, R. A., et al. (2004). "Development and comparison of approaches for automated mapping of stream channel networks." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94(3): 477-490.
Accurate mapping of stream channel networks is important for measuring hydrologic parameters, for site planning
in construction projects, and for use in hydrologic models. This article compares five existing and two new
methods for extracting stream channel networks for use in topographic mapping. In order of increasing accuracy,
these methods are: (1) blue lines on USGS 1:24,000 topographic maps (64.6 percent underrepresentation), (2)
placing stream heads using a constant flow-accumulation area to mimic USGS blue lines (47.8 percent underrepresentation),
(3) constant flow-accumulation area equal to the mean for identified channel heads (30.3 percent
combined under- and overrepresentation), (4) variable flow-accumulation area estimated by multiple linear
regression (28.9 percent combined under- and overrepresentation), (5) variable flow-accumulation area estimated
by a slope-power relationship (23.6 percent combined under- and overrepresentation), (6) identifying
stream cells using logistic regression (12.7 percent combined under- and overrepresentation), and (7) extracting
stream channel head locations from digital orthophotoquads (DOQs) (nearly 100 percent accurate, but only
applicable under ideal conditions). Methods 2–6 require 10 m resolution digital elevation models that can be
acquired directly in many areas or can be derived from 1:24,000 hypsography where available; Methods 4 and 6
are new methods developed in this paper.
Using DOQs, while extremely accurate, is labor intensive and can be applied only in a small minority of
locations where vegetation cover does not obscure channel head locations. We conclude that identifying stream
cells using logistic regression has the broadest applicability because it can be implemented in an automated
fashion using only DEMs while still achieving accuracies for mapping low-order streams that are far superior to
existing USGS maps.
 
 
Heller, P. (1981). "Small Landslide Types and Controls in Glacial Deposits: Lower Skagit River Drainage, Northern Cascade Range, Washington." Environmental Geology 3: 221-228.
Helley, E. J. (?). "The Red Bluff Pediment - A Datum Plane for locating Quaternary Structures in the Sacramento Valley, California "?: 1-6.
Helmlinger, K. R., et al. (1993). "On the use of digital elevation model data for hortonian and fractal analyses of channel networks." Water Resources Research 29(8): 2599-2613.
Hemphill-Haley, M. A., et al. (1998). Paleoseismicity of the Alvord fault, Steens Mountain, Southeastern Oregon Dating and Earthquakes: Review of Quaternary Geochronology an Its Application to Paleoseismology (Bigelow). J. M. Sowers, J. S. Noller and W. R. Lettis: 89-95.
Hemstrom, M. A. and J. F. Franklin (1982). "Fire and Other Disturbances of the Forests in Mount Rainier National Park." Quaternary Research 18: 32-51.
Henderson, F. M., T.F. Hart Jr., L. Orlando, B. Heaton, J. Portolese, and R. Chasan (1998). "Application of C-CAP protocol land cover data to nonpoint source water pollution potential spatial models in a coastal environment." Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 64(10): 1015-1020.
Henderson, J. A. and D. Peter (1983). Preliminary Plant Associations and Habitat Types of the Hoodsport and Quilcene Ranger Districts Olympic National Forest, US Forest Service: 2-25.
Henkin, S. (1984). Soil Strength Reinforcement from Distributions of Roots: A Mathematical Approach: 32.
Hennon, P. E., et al. (1999). Comparing deterioration and ecosystem function of decay-resistant and decay-susceptible species of dead trees. Symposium on the ecology and management of dead wood in western forests, Reno, Nevada.
Hennon, P. E. and M. H. McClellan (2003). "Tree mortality and forest structure in the temperate rain forests of southeast Alaska." Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33: 1621-1634.
Heppner, C. S., Q. Ran, J.E. VanderKwaak, and K. Loague (2006). "Adding sediment transport to the integrated hydrology model (InHM): development and testing." Advances in Water Resources 29: 930-943.
  model, sediment yield, erosion, plot-scale, calibration, validation, sensitivity analysis
 
Hergarten, S. and H. J. Neugebauer (1998). "Self-organized criticality in a landslide model." Geophysical Research Letters 25(6): 801-804.
From landslide mapping it is known that the
frequency of landslide occurence as a function of their magnitude
can be described by a power law in many regions.
In order to investigate the magnitude distribution of landslides
from a theoretical point of view, we present a physically
based landslide model combining aspects of slope stability
and mass movement. If the long term driving processes
(fluvial or tectonic) are integrated, the model shows
self{organized criticality (SOC). The results coincide with
results obtained from landslide mapping, so that our model
suggests that landsliding may be seen as a SOC process.
In contrast to other models showing SOC that are mostly
based on cellular automata, our model is based on partial
dierential equations. The results show that SOC is not a
fashion of cellular automata, but can also occur in di
erential equation models.
 
Hermanns, R. L., et al. (2001). "Neotectonics and catastrophic failure of mountain fronts in the southern intra-Andean Puna Plateau, Argentina." Geological Society of America 29(7): 619-623.
Hernandez, M., et al. (2000). "Modeling runoff response to land cover and rainfall spatial variability in semi-arid watersheds." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 64(1): 285-298.
This paper describes a procedure for evaluating the effects of land cover change and rainfall spatial variability on watershed response. Two hydrological models were applied on a small semiarid watershed in Arizona, USA; one model is event-based with a one-minute time step (KINEROS), and the second is a continuous model with a daily time step (SWAT). The inputs to the models were derived from Geographic Information System (GIS) theme layers of USGS digital elevation models, the State Soil Geographic Database (STATSGO) and the Landsat-based North American Landscape Characterization classification (NALC) in conjunction with available literature and look up tables. Rainfall data from a network of 10 raingauges and historical stream flow data were used to calibrate runoff depth using the continuous hydrologic model from 1966 to 1974. No calibration was carried out for the event-based model, in which six storms from the same period were used in the calculation of runoff depth and peak runoff. The assumption on which much of this study is based is that land cover change and rainfall spatial variability affect the rainfall-runoff relationships on the watershed. To validate this assumption, simulations were carried out wherein the entire watershed was transformed from the 1972 NALC land cover, which consisted of a mixture of desertscrub and grassland, to a single uniform land cover type such as riparian, forest, oak woodland, mesquite woodland, desertscrub, grassland, urban, agriculture, and barren. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using widely available data sets for parameterizing hydrological simulation models. The simulation results show that both models were able to characterize the runoff response of the watershed due to changes of land cover.
 
Herrera Environmental Consultants Inc. (2004). Review of the available literature related to wood loading dynamics in and around streams in Eastern Washington forests. Cooperative monitoring Evaluation and Research 03-308.
Hessburg, P. F., et al. (1999). Using Estimates of Natural Variation to Detect Ecologically Important Change in Forest Spatial Patterns: A Case Study, Cascade Range, Eastern Washington, US Department of Agriculture
Forest Service
Pacific Northwest Research Station: 1-65.
Heusser, C. J. (1974). "Quaternary vegetation, climate and glaciation in the Hoh River valley, Washington." Geological Society of America Bulletin 85: 1547-1560.
Heusser, C. J. (1977). "Quaternary palynology of the Pacific slope of Washington." Quaternary Research 8: 282-306.
Heuvelink, G. B. M. (1998). "Uncertainty analysis in environmental modelling under a change of spatial scale." Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 50(255-264).
Hewawasam, T.
Hewawasam, T., et al. (2003). "Increase of human over natural erosion rates in tropical highlands constrained by cosmogenic nuclides." Geology 31(7): 597-600.
We quantify the difference between the human-caused sediment yield and the natural rates of soil production and bedrock erosion in a now largely deforested tropical highland. The present-day rate of soil loss in the Upper Mahaweli catchment, Sri Lanka, is calculated by using suspended river-load fluxes. These data provide spatially averaged sediment yields of 130{ndash}2100 t{middot}km{minus}2{middot}yr{minus}1. Local rates of soil loss from agricultural plots on hillslopes are as high as 7000 t{middot}km{minus}2{middot}yr{minus}1. By comparison, natural rates of sediment generation, as determined by measuring cosmogenic 10Be in quartz from sediments and soils, are only 13{ndash}30 t{middot}km{minus}2{middot}yr{minus}1. The natural rates presented here provide a benchmark against which recent erosion rates, determined by various sediment gauging techniques, can be referenced. In the Sri Lankan highlands, these results suggest that soil is now being lost 10{ndash}100 times faster from agriculturally utilized areas than it is being produced.
 
Hewitt, K. (1988). "Castastrophic Landslide Deposits in the Karakoram Himalayas." Science 242: 64-67.
Hewlett, J. D., and A.R. Hibbert (1961). "Increases in water yield after several types of forest cutting." IAHS-AISH Publication 6: 5-17.
Hewlett, J. D., and R. Doss (1984). "Forests, floods, and erosion: a watershed experiment in the southeastern Piedmont." Forest Science 30(2): 424-434.
Hey, R., D. (1988). Mathematical models of channel morphology. Modelling Geomorphological Systems. M. G. Anderson. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons: 99-125.
Hey, R. D. (1978). "Determinate Hydraulic Geometry of River Channels." Journal of the Hydraulics Division 6: 869-883.
Hey, R. D. (1979). "Dynamic Process-Response Model of River Channel Development." Earth Surface Processes 4: 59-72.
Hey, R. D. (1979). "Flow resistance in gravel-bed rivers." J. Hydr. Div., Amer. Soc. Civ. Eng. 105: 365-379.
Heyerdahl, E. K. and J. K. Agee (1993). Fire History Database of the Western United States: Preliminary Report Covering Oregon and Washington. Seattle, Washington, USDA Forest Service: 37.
Hibbs, D. E. and P. A. Giordano (1996). "Vegetation characteristics of alder-dominated riparian buffer strips in the Oregon Coast Range." Northwest Science 70(3): 213-222.
Hickin, E. J. (1984). "Vegetation and river channel dynamics." Canadian Geographer 28: 111-126.
Hicks, B. J., et al. (1991). "Long-term changes in streamflow following logging in western Oregon and associated fisheries implications." Water Resources Bulletin 27(3): 217-226.
Hicks, B. J. and J. D. Hall (2003). "Rock Type and Channel Gradient Structure Salmonid Populations in the Oregon Coast Range." Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 132: 468-482.
Hicks, B. J., et al. (1991). Responses of salmonids to habitat changes. Influences of Forest and Rangeland Management on Salmonid Fishes and Their Habitats. W. R. Meehan. Bethesda, Maryland, American Fisheries Society. Publication 19: 483-518.
Hicks, D. and H. Omura (1992). Landslides and Debris Flows at Shimoda, Japan. Lower Hutt, New Zealand, DSIR Land Resources: 11.
Hicks, D. and H. Omura (1995). Channel Morphology, Landslides, and Debris Flow Occurence at Tokyo, Japan. International Sabo Symposium, Tokyo, Japan.
Hicks, D. M., et al. (2000). "Erosion thresholds and suspended sediment yields, Waipaoa River Basin, New Zealand." Water Resources Research 36(4): 1129-1142.
Higgins, J. J. (2004). An introduction to modern nonparametric statistics, Brooks/Cole,Pacific Grove, CA, p366.
Higgins, J. L. (2003). Determination of upstream boundary points on southeastern Washington streams and rivers under the requirements of the Shoreline Management Act of 1971. U. S. G. Survey. Tacoma, WA.
Hilderbrand, R. H., et al. (1997). "Effects of large woody debris placement on stream channels and benthic macroinvertebrates." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 54: 931-939.
Large woody debris (LWD) was added as an experimental stream restoration technique in two streams in southwest
Virginia. Additions were designed to compare human judgement in log placements against a randomized design and an
unmanipulated reach, &d also to compare effectiveness in a low- and a high-gradient stream. Pool area increased 146% in the
systematic placement and 32% in the random placement sections of the low-gradient stream, lending support to the notion that
human judgement can be more effective than placing logs at random in low-gradient streams. Conversely, the high-gradient
stream changed very little after LWD additions, suggesting that other hydraulic controls such as boulders and bedrock
override LWD influences in high-gradient streams. Logs oriented as dams were responsible for all pools created by additions
regardless of stream or method of placement. Multiple log combinations created only two pools, while the other seven pools
were created by single LWD pieces. Total benthic macroinvertebrate abundance did not change as a result of LWD additions
in either stream, but net abundances of Plecoptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, and Oligochaeta decreased, while Ephemeroptera
increased significantly with the proportional increase in pool area in the low-gradient stream.
 
 
Hillman, G. R. and J. P. Verschuren (1988). "Simulation of the effects of forest cover, and its removal, on subsurface water." Water Resources Research 24(2): 305-314.
Hirano, M. and M. Aniya (1988). "A rational explanation of cross-profile morphology for glacial valleys and of glacial valley development." Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 13: 707-716.
Hitt, N. P. (2007). Effects of stream network topology on fish assemblage structure and bioassessment sensitivity in the mid-Atlantic highlands, USA. Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences. Blacksburg, Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. PhD: 242.
Stream fish assemblages exist within stream networks defined by the size and
proximity of connected streams (i.e., stream network topology). The spatial position of
sites within stream networks may therefore regulate opportunities for fish dispersal to
access distant resources or colonize “new” habitats. Such inter-stream dispersal
dynamics will influence local fish assemblage structure and the vulnerability of local
assemblages to anthropogenic stressors. In this dissertation, I explored the effects of
stream network topology on fish assemblage structure in the mid-Atlantic highlands,
USA and tested the hypothesis that dispersal would affect the sensitivity of fish-based
environmental quality assessments (i.e., bioassessments).
In chapter 1, I evaluated the effects of stream networks by comparing fish
assemblages between sites with and without large downstream confluences (>3rd order) in
western Virginia, USA (i.e., mainstem tributaries and headwater tributaries, respectively).
I found that local species richness was higher in mainstem tributaries than headwater
tributaries and that these effects could not be explained by variation in local
environmental habitat conditions. In chapter 2, I developed and applied a continuous
model of stream network topology to explore the effects of downstream size and
proximity on local fish assemblage structure within the mid-Atlantic highlands. I found
that fish assemblage structure (i.e., Bray-Curtis distances in species abundance) was
significantly related to variation in stream network topology up to approximately 9 fluvial
km from sites.
Chapters 3 and 4 explored the implications of inter-stream dispersal for fish
bioassessments. In Chapter 3, I identified 10 fish metrics that corresponded predictably
to environmental stressors in the mid-Atlantic highlands. However, headwater tributary
assemblages showed stronger relations to local environmental quality than mainstem
tributaries, consistent with the hypothesis of riverine dispersal. In Chapter 4, I compared
the effects of stream network topology on fish and benthic macroinvertebrate
assemblages. Fish metrics were influenced by the size and proximity of connected
streams but benthic macroinvertebrate metrics were not. This finding suggests that
stream fishes may complement benthic macroinvertebrate bioassessments by indicating
environmental conditions at larger spatial grains.
 
Hjort, J. and M. Marmion (2008). "Effects of sample size on the accuracy of geomorphological models." Geomorphology 102: 341-350.
Commonly, the most costly part of geomorphological distribution modelling studies is gathering the data.
Thus, guidance for researchers concerning the quantity of field data needed would be extremely practical.
This paper scrutinises the relationship between the sample size (the number of observations varied from 20
to 600) and the predictive ability of the generalized linear model (GLM), generalized additive model (GAM),
generalized boosting method (GBM) and artificial neural network (ANN) in two data settings, i.e.,
independent and split-sample approaches. The study was performed using empirical data of periglacial
processes from an area of 600 km2 in northernmost Finland at grid resolutions of 1 ha (100×100 m) and
25 ha (500×500 m). A rather sharp increase in the predictive ability of the models was obs